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Children's Literature essays

Childrens literature essays

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J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892-1973) was a major scholar of the English language, specialising in Old and Middle English. Twice Professor of Anglo-Saxon (Old English) at the University of Oxford, he also wrote a number of stories, including most famously The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of the literature, Rings (1954-1955), which are set in a pre-historic era in an invented version of our world which he called by the Middle English name of Middle-earth. This was peopled by Men (and women), Elves, Dwarves, Trolls, Orcs (or Goblins) and of course Hobbits. He has regularly been condemned by research the Eng.

Lit. establishment, with honourable exceptions, but loved by literally millions of readers worldwide. In the literature, 1960s he was taken up by many members of the nascent #8220;counter-culture#8221; largely because of his concern with environmental issues. In 1997 he came top of three British polls, organised respectively by Channel 4 / Waterstone#8217;s, the Folio Society, and SFX, the UK#8217;s leading science fiction media magazine, amongst discerning readers asked to vote for the greatest book of the 20th century. Please note also that his name is spelt Tolkien (there is no #8220;Tolkein#8221;). The name #8220;Tolkien#8221; (pron.: Tol-keen; equal stress on both syllables) is intelligent research, believed to be of literature essays German origin; Toll-kuhn: foolishly brave, or stupidly clever hence the pseudonym #8220;Oxymore#8221; which he occasionally used. His father#8217;s side of the family appears to have migrated from Saxony in the 18th century, but over paper computer, the century and a half before his birth had become thoroughly Anglicised. Certainly his father, Arthur Reuel Tolkien, considered himself nothing if not English. Arthur was a bank clerk, and went to South Africa in the 1890s for essays, better prospects of promotion.

There he was joined by his bride, Mabel Suffield, whose family were not only English through and through, but West Midlands since time immemorial. So John Ronald (#8220;Ronald#8221; to family and early friends) was born in Bloemfontein, S.A., on 3 January 1892. His memories of Africa were slight but vivid, including a scary encounter with a large hairy spider, and influenced his later writing to some extent; slight, because on 15 February 1896 his father died, and he, his mother and his younger brother Hilary returned to England or more particularly, the thin research, West Midlands. Childrens Literature. The West Midlands in Tolkien#8217;s childhood were a complex mixture of the grimly industrial Birmingham conurbation, and the quintessentially rural stereotype of England, Worcestershire and surrounding areas: Severn country, the land of the composers Elgar, Vaughan Williams and Gurney, and more distantly the poet A. E. Housman (it is also just across the border from Wales). Resume Header. Tolkien#8217;s life was split between these two: the then very rural hamlet of Sarehole, with its mill, just south of Birmingham; and darkly urban Birmingham itself, where he was eventually sent to essays, King Edward#8217;s School. What Steps An Expository. By then the family had moved to childrens literature essays, King#8217;s Heath, where the house backed onto a railway line young Ronald#8217;s developing linguistic imagination was engaged by thin computer research the sight of coal trucks going to and from South Wales bearing destinations like#8221; Nantyglo#8221;,#8221; Penrhiwceiber#8221; and #8220;Senghenydd#8221;. Then they moved to childrens, the somewhat more pleasant Birmingham suburb of Edgbaston. However, in the meantime, something of profound significance had occurred, which estranged Mabel and her children from both sides of the family: in 1900, together with her sister May, she was received into the Roman Catholic Church. From then on, both Ronald and Hilary were brought up in rise of mccarthyism the faith of Pio Nono, and remained devout Catholics throughout their lives.

The parish priest who visited the family regularly was the half-Spanish half-Welsh Father Francis Morgan. Tolkien family life was generally lived on the genteel side of poverty. However, the situation worsened in 1904, when Mabel Tolkien was diagnosed as having diabetes, usually fatal in those pre-insulin days. She died on 14 November of that year leaving the two orphaned boys effectively destitute. At this point Father Francis took over, and made sure of the childrens, boys#8217; material as well as spiritual welfare, although in the short term they were boarded with an unsympathetic aunt-by-marriage, Beatrice Suffield, and then with a Mrs Faulkner. By this time Ronald was already showing remarkable linguistic gifts.

He had mastered the Latin and Greek which was the staple fare of an arts education at that time, and was becoming more than competent in a number of resume header other languages, both modern and ancient, notably Gothic, and later Finnish. He was already busy making up his own languages, purely for fun. He had also made a number of close friends at King Edward#8217;s; in his later years at childrens literature school they met regularly after hours as the transport papers, #8220;T. C. B. S.#8221; (Tea Club, Barrovian Society, named after their meeting place at the Barrow Stores) and they continued to correspond closely and exchange and literature essays, criticise each other#8217;s literary work until 1916. However, another complication had arisen. Amongst the intelligent papers, lodgers at Mrs Faulkner#8217;s boarding house was a young woman called Edith Bratt. When Ronald was 16, and she 19, they struck up a friendship, which gradually deepened. Eventually Father Francis took a hand, and forbade Ronald to see or even correspond with Edith for three years, until he was 21. Ronald stoically obeyed this injunction to the letter. In the summer of 1911, he was invited to join a party on literature, a walking holiday in Switzerland, which may have inspired his descriptions of the Misty Mountains, and steps, of Rivendell.

In the autumn of literature essays that year he went up to Exeter College, Oxford where he stayed, immersing himself in the Classics, Old English, the Germanic languages (especially Gothic), Welsh and Finnish, until 1913, when he swiftly though not without difficulty picked up the threads of his relationship with Edith. He then obtained a disappointing second class degree in intelligent transport research papers Honour Moderations, the #8220;midway#8221; stage of a 4-year Oxford #8220;Greats#8221; (i.e. Classics) course, although with an #8220;alpha plus#8221; in philology. As a result of childrens this he changed his school from Classics to the more congenial English Language and Literature. One of the what of writing an expository essay, poems he discovered in the course of his Old English studies was the Crist of Cynewulf he was amazed especially by the cryptic couplet: Eala Earendel engla beorhtast. Ofer middangeard monnum sended. Which translates as: Hail Earendel brightest of angels, over Middle Earth sent to men. (#8220; Middangeard #8221; was an ancient expression for childrens literature, the everyday world between Heaven above and thin computer, Hell below.) This inspired some of his very early and inchoate attempts at realising a world of ancient beauty in his versifying.

In the literature essays, summer of 1913 he took a job as tutor and escort to two Mexican boys in Dinard, France, a job which ended in tragedy. Though no fault of Ronald#8217;s, it did nothing to counter his apparent predisposition against resume header France and things French. Meanwhile the relationship with Edith was going more smoothly. She converted to essays, Catholicism and moved to Warwick, which with its spectacular castle and entrance essay, beautiful surrounding countryside made a great impression on Ronald. However, as the pair were becoming ever closer, the nations were striving ever more furiously together, and war eventually broke out in August 1914.

Unlike so many of his contemporaries, Tolkien did not rush to join up immediately on the outbreak of war, but returned to Oxford, where he worked hard and finally achieved a first-class degree in June 1915. At this time he was also working on various poetic attempts, and on his invented languages, especially one that he came to call Qenya [ sic ], which was heavily influenced by childrens Finnish but he still felt the lack of a connecting thread to bring his vivid but disparate imaginings together. Tolkien finally enlisted as a second lieutenant in the Lancashire Fusiliers whilst working on ideas of Earendel [ sic ] the Mariner, who became a star, and his journeyings. For many months Tolkien was kept in writing entrance essay boring suspense in England, mainly in literature essays Staffordshire. Finally it appeared that he must soon embark for France, and he and master, Edith married in Warwick on 22 March 1916. Eventually he was indeed sent to active duty on the Western Front, just in time for the Somme offensive. After four months in and out childrens of the trenches, he succumbed to #8220;trench fever#8221;, a form of typhus-like infection common in the insanitary conditions, and in early November was sent back to England, where he spent the next month in hospital in Birmingham.

By Christmas he had recovered sufficiently to stay with Edith at Great Haywood in Staffordshire. Intelligent. During these last few months, all but one of his close friends of the #8220;T. C. B. S.#8221; had been killed in action. Partly as an childrens act of piety to their memory, but also stirred by reaction against his war experiences, he had already begun to put his stories into intelligent papers, shape, #8220; … in huts full of literature blasphemy and smut, or by candle light in bell-tents, even some down in dugouts under shell fire #8221; [ Letters 66]. This ordering of his imagination developed into the Book of Lost Tales (not published in his lifetime), in which most of the major stories of the resume header, Silmarillion appear in their first form: tales of the Elves and childrens literature, the #8220;Gnomes#8221;, (i. Are The Of Writing An Expository Essay. e. Childrens Literature. Deep Elves, the later Noldor), with their languages Qenya and Goldogrin.

Here are found the first recorded versions of the wars against Morgoth, the research papers, siege and fall of Gondolin and literature, Nargothrond, and the tales of Turin and of Beren and Luthien. Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, although periods of remission enabled him to do home service at various camps sufficiently well to be promoted to lieutenant. Master Thesis. It was when he was stationed in the Hull area that he and essays, Edith went walking in rise of mccarthyism the woods at nearby Roos, and there in a grove thick with hemlock Edith danced for him. This was the inspiration for the tale of Beren and Luthien, a recurrent theme in his #8220;Legendarium#8221;. He came to think of Edith as #8220;Luthien#8221; and himself as #8220;Beren#8221;. Their first son, John Francis Reuel (later Father John Tolkien) had already been born on 16 November 1917. When the childrens, Armistice was signed on 11 November 1918, Tolkien had already been putting out feelers to obtain academic employment, and by of mccarthyism essay the time he was demobilised he had been appointed Assistant Lexicographer on the New English Dictionary (the #8220;Oxford English Dictionary#8221;), then in preparation. Essays. While doing the serious philological work involved in this, he also gave one of his Lost Tales its first public airing he read The Fall of Gondolin to the Exeter College Essay Club, where it was well received by an audience which included Neville Coghill and Hugo Dyson, two future #8220;Inklings#8221;. However, Tolkien did not stay in this job for long. Resume Header. In the summer of 1920 he applied for the quite senior post of Reader (approximately, Associate Professor) in English Language at the University of literature essays Leeds, and to his surprise was appointed.

At Leeds as well as teaching he collaborated with E. V. Gordon on the famous edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and continued writing and refining The Book of Lost Tales and his invented #8220;Elvish#8221; languages. In addition, he and Gordon founded a #8220;Viking Club#8221; for intelligent transport, undergraduates devoted mainly to reading Old Norse sagas and drinking beer. Essays. It was for this club that he and Gordon originally wrote their Songs for the Philologists , a mixture of traditional songs and original verses translated into Old English, Old Norse and Gothic to fit traditional English tunes. Leeds also saw the birth of resume header two more sons: Michael Hilary Reuel in October 1920, and Christopher Reuel in 1924. Childrens. Then in 1925 the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford fell vacant; Tolkien successfully applied for the post. Professor Tolkien, The Inklings and Hobbits. In a sense, in returning to Oxford as a Professor, Tolkien had come home. Although he had few illusions about the academic life as a haven of unworldly scholarship (see for example Letters 250), he was nevertheless by temperament a don#8217;s don, and fitted extremely well into of mccarthyism, the largely male world of teaching, research, the childrens, comradely exchange of ideas and rise, occasional publication. Childrens Literature Essays. In fact, his academic publication record is research, very sparse, something that would have been frowned upon in literature these days of of mccarthyism essay quantitative personnel evaluation. However, his rare scholarly publications were often extremely influential, most notably his lecture #8220;Beowulf, the Monsters and the Critics#8221;.

His seemingly almost throwaway comments have sometimes helped to transform the understanding of a particular field for example, in literature his essay on #8220;English and Welsh#8221;, with its explanation of the origins of the term #8220;Welsh#8221; and its references to phonaesthetics (both these pieces are collected in The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays , currently in print). His academic life was otherwise largely unremarkable. In 1945 he changed his chair to resume header, the Merton Professorship of childrens literature English Language and Literature, which he retained until his retirement in 1959. Apart from all the above, he taught undergraduates, and played an paper thin computer important but unexceptional part in academic politics and childrens essays, administration. His family life was equally straightforward. Rise Of Mccarthyism Essay. Edith bore their last child and only daughter, Priscilla, in childrens literature essays 1929.

Tolkien got into the habit of writing the children annual illustrated letters as if from Santa Claus, and resume header, a selection of these was published in 1976 as The Father Christmas Letters . He also told them numerous bedtime stories, of which more anon. In adulthood John entered the priesthood, Michael and Christopher both saw war service in the Royal Air Force. Afterwards Michael became a schoolmaster and Christopher a university lecturer, and Priscilla became a social worker. Literature. They lived quietly in North Oxford, and later Ronald and Edith lived in the suburb of Headington. However, Tolkien#8217;s social life was far from unremarkable. He soon became one of the founder members of a loose grouping of Oxford friends (by no means all at thin the University) with similar interests, known as #8220;The Inklings#8221;. The origins of the name were purely facetious it had to do with writing, and literature, sounded mildly Anglo-Saxon; there was no evidence that members of the group claimed to have an #8220;inkling#8221; of the Divine Nature, as is sometimes suggested. Other prominent members included the above-mentioned Messrs Coghill and resume header, Dyson, as well as Owen Barfield, Charles Williams, and above all C. Childrens. S. Lewis, who became one of Tolkien#8217;s closest friends, and for master proposal, whose return to Christianity Tolkien was at least partly responsible.

The Inklings regularly met for conversation, drink, and childrens, frequent reading from their work-in-progress. Meanwhile Tolkien continued developing his mythology and languages. As mentioned above, he told his children stories, some of which he developed into those published posthumously as Mr. Bliss , Roverandom , etc. However, according to research papers, his own account, one day when he was engaged in the soul-destroying task of marking examination papers, he discovered that one candidate had left one page of an answer-book blank.

On this page, moved by who knows what anarchic daemon, he wrote #8220; In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit #8220;. In typical Tolkien fashion, he then decided he needed to find out what a Hobbit was, what sort of a hole it lived in, why it lived in a hole, etc. From this investigation grew a tale that he told to his younger children, and even passed round. Childrens Essays. In 1936 an incomplete typescript of it came into the hands of transport papers Susan Dagnall, an employee of the essays, publishing firm of George Allen and Unwin (merged in 1990 with HarperCollins). She asked Tolkien to finish it, and presented the complete story to Stanley Unwin, the then Chairman of the firm.

He tried it out on his 10-year old son Rayner, who wrote an approving report, and it was published as The Hobbit in 1937. It immediately scored a success, and has not been out of computer research children#8217;s recommended reading lists ever since. Childrens Literature. It was so successful that Stanley Unwin asked if he had any more similar material available for publication. By this time Tolkien had begun to make his Legendarium into what he believed to be a more presentable state, and as he later noted, hints of research it had already made their way into literature, The Hobbit . He was now calling the full account Quenta Silmarillion , or Silmarillion for short. He presented some of his #8220;completed#8221; tales to Unwin, who sent them to his reader.

The reader#8217;s reaction was mixed: dislike of the poetry and resume header, praise for the prose (the material was the story of Beren and literature essays, Luthien) but the overall decision at the time was that these were not commercially publishable. Intelligent Transport Research Papers. Unwin tactfully relayed this message to Tolkien, but asked him again if he was willing to write a sequel to The Hobbit . Tolkien was disappointed at essays the apparent failure of The Silmarillion , but agreed to take up the challenge of #8220;The New Hobbit#8221;. This soon developed into something much more than a children#8217;s story; for the highly complex 16-year history of what became The Lord of the resume header, Rings consult the works listed below. Literature. Suffice it to say that the now adult Rayner Unwin was deeply involved in the later stages of thin this opus, dealing magnificently with a dilatory and temperamental author who, at childrens one stage, was offering the whole work to are the of writing an expository, a commercial rival (which rapidly backed off when the scale and nature of the childrens literature essays, package became apparent). It is thanks to Rayner Unwin#8217;s advocacy that we owe the fact that this book was published at all Andave laituvalmes ! His father#8217;s firm decided to writing college entrance, incur the essays, probable loss of ?1,000 for the succes d#8217;estime , and publish it under the title of The Lord of the writing college essay, Rings in three parts during 1954 and 1955, with USA rights going to Houghton Mifflin. It soon became apparent that both author and childrens literature, publishers had greatly underestimated the sample master proposal, work#8217;s public appeal.

The Lord of the Rings rapidly came to public notice. It had mixed reviews, ranging from the literature, ecstatic (W. H. Auden, C. S. Lewis) to transport, the damning (E. Wilson, E. Muir, P. Toynbee) and just about everything in childrens literature between. The BBC put on what an expository, a drastically condensed radio adaptation in 12 episodes on the Third Programme. In 1956 radio was still a dominant medium in Britain, and the Third Programme was the childrens, #8220;intellectual#8221; channel. So far from resume header losing money, sales so exceeded the break-even point as to make Tolkien regret that he had not taken early retirement. However, this was still based only upon hardback sales.

The really amazing moment was when The Lord of the Rings went into a pirated paperback version in 1965. Firstly, this put the book into the impulse-buying category; and secondly, the publicity generated by the copyright dispute alerted millions of American readers to the existence of something outside their previous experience, but which appeared to speak to their condition. By 1968 The Lord of the Rings had almost become the Bible of the #8220;Alternative Society#8221;. This development produced mixed feelings in the author. On the one hand, he was extremely flattered, and to his amazement, became rather rich.

On the childrens literature, other, he could only deplore those whose idea of a great trip was to ingest The Lord of the Rings and LSD simultaneously. Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick had similar experiences with 2001: A Space Odyssey . Fans were causing increasing problems; both those who came to gawp at his house and those, especially from California who telephoned at 7 p.m. (their time 3 a.m. Essay. his), to childrens, demand to know whether Frodo had succeeded or failed in of writing an expository essay the Quest, what was the preterite of Quenyan lanta -, or whether or not Balrogs had wings. So he changed addresses, his telephone number went ex-directory, and eventually he and essays, Edith moved to resume header, Bournemouth, a pleasant but uninspiring South Coast resort (Hardy#8217;s #8220;Sandbourne#8221;), noted for the number of essays its elderly well-to-do residents. College Entrance. Meanwhile the cult, not just of Tolkien, but of the fantasy literature that he had revived, if not actually inspired (to his dismay), was really taking off but that is another story, to be told in another place. Despite all the fuss over The Lord of the Rings , between 1925 and his death Tolkien did write and publish a number of other articles, including a range of scholarly essays, many reprinted in essays The Monsters and thin research, the Critics and Other Essays (see above); one Middle-earth related work, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ; editions and translations of Middle English works such as the Ancrene Wisse , Sir Gawain , Sir Orfeo and The Pearl , and some stories independent of the literature, Legendarium, such as the Imram , The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm#8217;s Son , The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun and, especially, Farmer Giles of Ham , Leaf by Niggle , and Smith of Wootton Major . The flow of publications was only essay, temporarily slowed by Tolkien#8217;s death. The long-awaited Silmarillion , edited by Christopher Tolkien, appeared in 1977. Childrens Literature Essays. In 1980 Christopher also published a selection of his father#8217;s incomplete writings from resume header his later years under the title of Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-earth . In the introduction to this work Christopher Tolkien referred in passing to The Book of Lost Tales , #8220;itself a very substantial work, of the utmost interest to one concerned with the origins of Middle-earth, but requiring to be presented in childrens literature essays a lengthy and complex study, if at all#8221; ( Unfinished Tales , p. 6, paragraph 1). The sales of The Silmarillion had rather taken George Allen Unwin by surprise, and those of Unfinished Tales even more so.

Obviously, there was a market even for this relatively abstruse material and they decided to risk embarking on this #8220;lengthy and complex study#8221;. Even more lengthy and complex than expected, the resulting 12 volumes of the History of Middle-earth , under Christopher#8217;s editorship, proved to be a successful enterprise. (Tolkien#8217;s publishers had changed hands, and names, several times between the start of the enterprise in 1983 and writing college entrance, the appearance of the paperback edition of Volume 12, The Peoples of Middle-earth , in 1997.) After his retirement in 1959 Edith and Ronald moved to childrens essays, Bournemouth. On 29 November 1971 Edith died, and Ronald soon returned to Oxford, to are the of writing an expository, rooms provided by Merton College. Ronald died on 2 September 1973. He and Edith are buried together in a single grave in the Catholic section of Wolvercote cemetery in the northern suburbs of Oxford. (The grave is well signposted from the entrance.) The legend on the headstone reads: Edith Mary Tolkien, Luthien, 1889-1971. Essays. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Beren, 1892-1973.

Tolkien: A Biography . Entrance Essay. Humphrey Carpenter. Allen and Unwin, London, 1977. Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien . Ed. Humphrey Carpenter with Christopher Tolkien. George Allen and Unwin, London, 1981. The Tolkien Family Album . John Tolkien and literature, Priscilla Tolkien. HarperCollins, London, 1992.

#8220; Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892-1973). #8221; T. A. Intelligent Research Papers. Shippey. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press. Print 2004. Online 2006. (Also available as a podcast.) The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide . Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull. HarperCollins, London, 2006. 2 vols. President in perpetuo : Prof. J.R.R. Tolkien CBE.

Vice President: Priscilla Tolkien. The Tolkien Society is a registered charity (registration no 273809) in England and literature essays, Wales.

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ocr rs coursework Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the childrens, same. The Blair decade.

Brown and writing, Balls: mixed messages. What future for literature essays, education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of a chapter which will form part of the master thesis proposal, revised version currently in preparation. Organisation of this chapter. Brown and Balls. Cameron and Gove. 2008 Education and Skills Act.

2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act. 2009 White Paper. 2009 Children, Schools and childrens literature, Families Bill. 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. Other Acts relating to children and young people. 2007 Further Education and resume header, Training Act. 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. 2010 Child Poverty Act.

IRPC interim report. CPR curriculum report. CSFC National Curriculum report. IRPC final report. CPR final report. Nuffield 14-19 Review. Building Schools for the Future. Academies and trust schools. Covert selection by literature essays faith schools. The National Challenge.

The inspection regime. 2008 NUT Conference. Gove's view of education. Education in England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and sample master thesis, print it for your own personal use, or for literature, use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is rise attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece. Literature? If you do so, please acknowledge it thus:

Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history www.educationengland.org.uk/history. In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is sample shown as a link, the full text is available online. © Crown copyright material is essays reproduced with the permission of the paper computer research, Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Chapter 11 : 2007-2010.

Brown and Balls: mixed messages. The new administration. Brown and essays, Balls. Tony Blair was replaced as prime minister by paper former chancellor of the exchequer Gordon Brown ( pictured ). His new administration immediately announced that the education department would be split in literature, two: the Department for Children, Schools and college entrance, Families (DCSF) with Ed Balls as secretary of state, and the Department of childrens literature essays Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) under John Denham. (Balls's official title was 'Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families', though he was usually referred to as 'the children's secretary'). There was some logic to this division. DCSF brought together all policy relating to children and young people: in paper computer, addition to childrens essays, overseeing schools, it shared youth justice with the Ministry of Justice, child poverty with the Treasury and are the of writing, the Department for childrens literature, Work and Pensions, children's health with the Department of Health, and thin computer research, youth sport with the Department for Culture. It also took the childrens literature essays, 'respect' agenda from the Home Office. DIUS took science and innovation from the Department for Trade and Industry and resume header, would be responsible for the development, funding and performance of higher education, both teaching and childrens, research; together with adult learning, including Train to Gain and basic skills.

It would oversee the £4bn adult portion of the Learning and Skills Council budget. One of its main aims was the improvement of graduate skills. But there were complications in the arrangement. DCSF would set education policy for students up to the age of 19, but work with DIUS on 14-19 reforms. School pupils in the 14 to 19 age group and sixth form college students would come under DCSF, but general further education college students and apprentices aged 16 to 19 were the responsibility of DIUS, though they would be funded via local education authorities. The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) thus had half its budget removed, putting its future in doubt ( The Guardian 3 July 2007). In the event, DIUS only lasted two years. Resume Header? In June 2009 it was abolished and its responsibilities subsumed into a new Department of essays Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), led by Lord (Peter) Mandelson. In his inaugural statement, the new children's secretary Ed Balls ( pictured ) said he would introduce legislation to raise the school leaving age to 18, improve school discipline, remove barriers to further expansion of the academies programme, and writing college entrance, give teachers more scope to decide when pupils should be tested.

He announced that Leicester University chancellor Sir Peter Williams, chair of the Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education, would conduct a review of maths teaching in primary schools. An extra £265m over the next three years would be spent ensuring that children from disadvantaged backgrounds could benefit from at essays, least two hours a week of out-of-hours group activities in term time. Secondary teachers would be given an of mccarthyism, extra training day a year, and literature essays, a scheme to writing college entrance, encourage graduates to teach in inner-city schools would be expanded beyond London. He also promised a ten-year youth strategy and a plan to tackle teenage pregnancy. A children's plan for the UK would be prepared and consulted on ( The Guardian 11 July 2007). In October 2007 the new chancellor of the exchequer Alistair Darling announced the three-year settlement for childrens literature, education. A 2.8 per sample thesis cent real terms annual increase to £74bn in literature, 2010 was higher than other departments but lower than in previous years.

Teachers' leaders pointed out that the budget for each pupil would rise from resume header £5,500 in 2007-8 to £6,600 in 2010-11 but that this was still far short of the cost of a private school education. Darling also promised £250m to fund the Children's Plan scheme to make sure children arrived at childrens literature essays, school ready to learn and able to resume header, benefit from personalised support ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). In his first major speech on education, Gordon Brown told an audience of educationists at Greenwich University that 'failing' schools would have five years to improve their pupils' GCSE results or they would face take-over or closure. Childrens? He set out are the of writing, wide-ranging plans to expand childcare, eradicate illiteracy and introduce more work-based apprenticeships to literature, persuade more 16 year olds to stay on in education. 'This is of writing an expository a determined and systematic agenda to end failure', he said. 'We will see it through. Literature? We will not flinch from the task' ( The Guardian 1 November 2007). As we saw in the previous chapter, Lord (Andrew) Adonis had wielded enormous influence over resume header education policy in the Blair administration.

He kept his post as schools minister when Gordon Brown took over, but his influence waned and in October 2008 he was moved from education to childrens literature essays, the Department of Transport. Cameron and rise, Gove. Meanwhile, Conservative party leader David Cameron ( pictured ) announced that the Tories would 'revolutionise' education by supporting the childrens essays, formation of parent-run co-operative schools paid for by local authorities. He said he was setting up a 'Conservative Co-operative Movement' based on the ideals of the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, the world's first successful co-operative. The National Union of Teachers (NUT) warned that the proposals would increase social segregation, and Co-operative Party general secretary Peter Hunt said: 'Co-operative Party policies are . rooted in Labour philosophy. Research? If David Cameron wishes to join us, he will first have to defect to the Labour party' ( The Guardian 9 November 2007). The new shadow education secretary was Michael Gove ( pictured ). At a conference at Brighton College in May 2008, Gove told teachers that a Conservative government would reinstate traditional styles of fact-based lessons. Generations of literature essays children had been let down by so-called progressive education policies which had taught skills and 'empathy' instead of intelligent transport research papers bodies of knowledge, he said.

He condemned the 'pupil-centred learning' theories which had gained support in the 1960s for literature, 'dethroning' the teacher: It is an approach to education that has been called progressive, but in fact is college entrance anything but. It privileges temporary relevance over a permanent body of knowledge which should be passed on from generation to generation . Literature Essays? We need to tackle this misplaced ideology wherever it occurs. NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower said: 'Gove's attack on child-centred learning is an absurd caricature of intelligent research papers reality . If there has been a dethroning of teachers, it has been because successive politicians have decided that they know better than teachers about how children learn' ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The Children's Plan. In December 2007 the government published its Children's Plan Building brighter futures . This important and ambitious document was based on widespread consultation involving children, young people, parents, teachers and policy makers, and childrens essays, was designed to underpin and inform all future government policy relating to children, their families and schools. It aimed to sample, eradicate child poverty and reduce illiteracy and antisocial behaviour by 2020. In his Foreword, Ed Balls said he wanted to make Britain 'the best place in the world for our children and young people to grow up'. (DCSF 2007:3)

The plan was based on five principles: government does not bring up children - parents do - so government needs to do more to back parents and families; all children have the potential to succeed and should go as far as their talents can take them; children and young people need to enjoy their childhood as well as grow up prepared for adult life; services need to be shaped by literature and responsive to rise of mccarthyism essay, children, young people and essays, families, not designed around professional boundaries; and it is always better to sample proposal, prevent failure than tackle a crisis later. (DCSF 2007:5-6) It set ten goals to be achieved by 2020: enhance children and young people's well-being, particularly at key transition points in their lives; every child ready for success in school, with at least 90 per cent developing well across all areas of the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile by age 5; every child ready for secondary school, with at least 90 per childrens literature essays cent achieving at essay, or above the essays, expected level in both English and mathematics by age 11; every young person with the skills for adult life and transport papers, further study, with at least 90 per cent achieving the equivalent of five higher level GCSEs by age 19; and at least 70 per childrens cent achieving the equivalent of resume header two A levels by childrens literature essays age 19; parents satisfied with the information and support they receive; all young people participating in positive activities to rise, develop personal and social skills, promote well-being and reduce behaviour that puts them at risk; employers satisfied with young people's readiness for work; child health improved, with the literature, proportion of obese and overweight children reduced to intelligent transport papers, 2000 levels; child poverty halved by 2010 and eradicated by essays 2020; and significantly reduce by 2020 the entrance essay, number of young offenders receiving a conviction, reprimand, or final warning for a recordable offence for the first time, with a goal to be set in the Youth Crime Action Plan. (DCSF 2007:14) The plan attempted to address a series of highly critical reports on childrens essays, British childhood by Unicef and others, and to are the essay, demonstrate evidence of Gordon Brown's administration's much talked-of 'vision'. There would be new playgrounds and literature, youth centres, personal tutors and one-to-one classes to give struggling pupils a chance to catch up and what are the steps an expository essay, their parents a contact at childrens essays, school. There would be radical reform of the curriculum and testing regimes, and a mandatory master's-level qualification for all new teachers. All new schools would be carbon-neutral by intelligent 2016 and childrens essays, there would be more 20mph speed limit zones near schools. A dozen strategy reviews - on areas including drugs and alcohol, sex education, bullying and sample master thesis proposal, the commercialisation of childhood - would determine how the literature essays, targets were to be met. Children's campaigners welcomed the plan. Children's Society chief executive Bob Reitemeier said: 'The responsibility for childhood rests with us all and master, we are encouraged that the children's plan looks beyond education to address fundamental areas such as parents and childrens literature essays, play.'

Child Poverty Action Group chief executive Kate Green commented: 'The common thread that will transform the plan's patchwork of intelligent transport research papers measures into a successful whole is an end to child poverty . Childrens Literature Essays? It is now up to the Treasury to resume header, make sure that . the child poverty target is met so that the children's plan is not undermined.' Teachers were generally supportive of the plan, though some were concerned at the scale of the reforms which schools were being asked to lead. John Dunford, general secretary of the Association of childrens literature essays School and College Leaders (ASCL), said the plan would make 'massive demands on schools' which would need the support of the full range of public services. 'If schools are to be placed at what are the, the core of social reform for children, as the breadth of the children's plan suggests, this places tremendous expectations on literature, schools and their leaders', he said ( The Guardian 12 December 2007). Download The Children's Plan (pdf text 640kb). There were three major education acts in this period: 2008 Education and Skills Act; 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act; 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act (much reduced in scope because of the impending general election). The Education and Skills Bill was jointly sponsored by intelligent transport research papers DCSF and DIUS. The Act (26 November 2008): raised the education leaving age to 18. Young people would be required to participate in childrens essays, education or training until their 18th birthday through: - full-time education or training, including school, college and home education; - work-based learning, such as an Apprenticeship; or. - part-time education or training, if they were employed, self-employed or volunteering more than 20 hours a week; rationalised the regulation and monitoring regime for independent schools and non-maintained special schools; improved careers education for 11 to 16 year olds; transferred responsibility for delivering the 'Connexions' service (which offered a wide range of support to young people) to local authorities; empowered local authorities to writing college entrance essay, arrange learning difficulty assessments in a person's final year of childrens literature essays compulsory education and up to resume header, the age of 25 for any young person who would benefit from one; placed a duty on the Learning and childrens literature essays, Skills Council (LSC) to ensure the free provision of paper computer research basic skills and first full level 2 qualification courses; placed a duty on the LSC to ensure that 19 to 25 year olds who were undertaking their first full level 3 qualification did not have to literature essays, pay tuition fees; required school governing bodies to invite and consider the views of pupils on policy matters which affected them; gave young people the resume header, right to literature essays, express a school preference for sixth-form education and to appeal against any decision made; required local authorities to produce annual reports on school admission arrangements in their area; and essay, made minor changes to the legislative regime governing the National Curriculum so that, from 2009, Key Stage 3 tests would no longer be compulsory. Download the Education and childrens literature, Skills Act 2008 (pdf text 672kb). 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act.

This Act (12 November 2009): created a statutory framework for apprenticeships and rise, a right to an apprenticeship for childrens literature, suitably qualified 16-18 year olds; gave employees the right to request time off for what are the essay, training, and required employers to consider such requests seriously; abolished the childrens, Learning and of mccarthyism essay, Skills Council; transferred responsibility for funding education and training for 16-18 year olds to local authorities; made provisions with respect to the education of offenders; created the Young Person's Learning Agency, the childrens literature, Skills Funding Agency, the Office of the Qualifications and what are the of writing, Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), and childrens, a new agency to carry out the resume header, non-regulatory functions currently performed by the Qualifications and childrens literature, Curriculum Authority; strengthened the accountability of children's services; amended intervention powers in respect of schools which were causing concern; established a new parental complaints service; changed the rise, school inspection arrangements; created a new negotiating body for support staff pay and conditions; and made provisions in respect of pupil and childrens literature essays, student behaviour. The bill gave Ed Balls and John Denham 153 new powers. 'Is this the most centralising education bill in history?' asked Warwick Mansell. He noted that under the 1944 Education Act the minister of education had had just three central duties: 'to promote the what essay, education of the people of England and Wales'; 'to promote the progressive development of schools and colleges'; and 'to secure that local authorities execute the childrens, national policy for providing a very comprehensive educational service'. But in the last twenty years, he argued, there had been 'a steady growth in the powers of essay central government, with the introduction of the national curriculum, national teaching strategies, and the targets and league table regime, all overseen and directed by ministers and civil servants' (Mansell 2009a). Barry Sheerman, Labour chair of the Commons children, schools and families committee, agreed. 'There does seem to childrens literature essays, be a general feeling out there, in the evidence the committee has received on several inquiries, of intelligent people desiring a swing back towards local autonomy', he said. Literature? 'Ministers need to understand this before they continue plodding on in the opposite direction.' And John Fowler, a consultant for the Local Government Information Unit, added 'If the government was really serious about devolving power, it would just scrap this bill and start again.

I cannot see that happening.' It didn't. 2009 White Paper: Your child, your schools, our future. Before the Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act had even received the Royal Assent, the government published its next education white paper, in June 2009. Your child, your schools, our future was to college, form the basis for the 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill (which was intended to become the 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act, though most of it would be lost in the run-up to the general election). The white paper signalled the abandonment of what many had seen as Blair's most significant education reform - the literature, National Strategies for literacy and numeracy. It also removed central government prescription of teaching methods and dramatically cut the use of the private consultants employed to improve schools. Are The Steps? Schools would have more freedom and would be enabled to establish networks of school-to-school support to help drive up standards in a 'new era of localism'. Childrens Literature Essays? Parents of children who regularly behaved badly in paper, class could face court-imposed parenting orders. The white paper's key points were: a pupil guarantee setting out childrens, new entitlements to personalised support for every child, matched by a parent guarantee for are the steps of writing essay, every parent; all schools to childrens, have good behaviour, strong discipline, order and safety; all pupils to be taught in a way that meets their needs; all pupils to have opportunities to take part in sport and cultural activities; all schools to promote their pupils' health and well-being; schools to work in partnership with other schools and with wider children's services; local consortia to offer a choice of every one of the sample master thesis proposal, new diplomas to 14-19 year-olds; partnerships of primary schools to share specialist teaching; develop a system for accrediting good education providers who wish to run groups of literature schools; more academies and trust schools; develop a system for thin, accrediting good education providers to run groups of schools; strong accountability and rapid intervention when needed to further improve schools; expand the role of 'School Improvement Partners' (SIPs); develop a new School Report Card (SRC); give schools greater flexibility and encourage greater innovation; improve the relationship between central government, local authorities and schools; new Masters degree in Teaching and Learning; better development of support staff; and governing bodies' fundamental duties to children, young people and the wider community to childrens, be enshrined in law.

Download the White Paper Your child, your schools, our future (pdf text 2.2mb). 2009 Children, Schools and writing college essay, Families Bill. These proposals formed the basis of the Children, Schools and literature, Families Bill. One of the bill's provisions, first announced by ministers in research papers, October 2008, was that sex education from the age of five would be made a compulsory part of the national curriculum in primary and childrens literature essays, secondary schools. Schools would not be allowed to opt out, and faith schools would be given guidance on sample master proposal, how to provide sex and relationship education - to include contraception, abortion and homosexuality - alongside conflicting religious beliefs ( The Guardian 24 October 2008). But religious groups objected, and essays, the government amended the master proposal, new regulations, which were due to come into effect in September 2011. While all schools would still be required to teach sex education, it now said that parents could withdraw children under 15 from the lessons, which would only be compulsory for 15 and 16 year olds ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). This still wasn't enough for the Catholic Education Service, which lobbied the childrens literature essays, government to make further amendments to the Bill. The government caved in and agreed that sex and relationships education (SRE) could now 'reflect a school's religious character'. Campaigners said the change would allow faith schools to resume header, discourage the use of essays contraception and teach that homosexuality was wrong.

The Accord Coalition (a newly-formed group of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations campaigning to stop state-funded schools from discriminating against students and teachers on the grounds of religion) accused Balls of implicitly condoning homophobia in schools and undermining his own attempts to tackle homophobic bullying. Resume Header? Chair of Accord Rabbi Dr Jonathan Romain said: It is literature astonishing that the government plans to deny young people of their right to accurate, balanced SRE . Children at faith schools have just as much right to paper, information that could help them avoid an childrens essays, unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. Sample Thesis Proposal? ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) A DCSF spokesman dismissed the complaints: All maintained schools will be required to teach full programmes of study in childrens essays, line with the principles outlined in the bill, including promoting equality and encouraging acceptance of diversity. Schools with a religious character will be free to are the steps of writing essay, express their faith and reflect the ethos of their school, but what they cannot do is suggest that their views are the only ones. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) In other words, a Catholic school would be required to teach children the facts about contraception, but would be allowed to try to persuade them that its use was immoral. Balls insisted the amendment would not 'water down' the bill: it would still require state schools to teach pupils about the importance of stable relationships, including civil partnerships, and childrens literature essays, it would forbid the promotion of homophobia. Liberal Democrat schools spokesman David Laws accused ministers of being in a 'terrific muddle' over the issue and said the amendment 'completely undermines the objectives of this part of the bill' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). Despite the concerns, the amendment was passed by 268 votes to 177 without debate (because of a lack of time at the report stage). Association of Teachers and intelligent papers, Lecturers (ATL) education policy adviser Alison Ryan said: 'We believe this amendment is unhelpful and unnecessary because it upsets the balance of the bill by placing the religious character of the school above the childrens, promotion of equality and tolerance of diversity.' National Secular Society executive director Keith Porteous Wood commented: 'The government have once more bowed to pressure from the Catholic church, betraying the children in sample proposal, faith schools who have a right to objective and balanced sex education' ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). And an editorial in The Guardian commented: This looks like a case of the government being led away from the path of righteousness by ecclesiastical lobbying, which has happened several times before. Literature Essays? There was, for instance, the climbdown over the plan to force faith schools to take some children from outside their own flock.

There was also section 37 of the 2008 Education Act, which undercut Labour's solid record on discrimination at essay, work by allowing schools to literature essays, hand-pick staff on the basis of their creed. Many devout people - and many believers in rise of mccarthyism essay, faith schools - are represented by the Accord Coalition, which argues that no state-funded institution should be exempted from norms that all other public bodies must follow. Unless all religious schools are required to see the light, the contradictions will become unsustainable. The recurring pattern of essays church lobbying and Whitehall climbdowns is testing society's faith in church schools as being a force for good. Paper Thin Research? ( The Guardian 24 February 2010) 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. In the event, with the general election just a month away, all the literature essays, sex education provisions (and many others) were lost from the Children, Schools and Families Act (8 April 2010). Download the resume header, Children, Schools and Families Act 2010 (pdf text 124kb).

Other Acts relating to children and young people. In addition to the three major education acts summarised above, there were three other acts relating to children and literature essays, young people during this period: 2007 Further Education and Training Act. The Further Education and Training Act (23 October 2007) made provisions about: the Learning and Skills Council for England; institutions within the further education sector; industrial training levies; the formation of, and investment in, companies and charitable incorporated organisations by higher education corporations; and the making of what are the steps an expository Welsh Assembly Measures in childrens literature essays, relation to the field of education. Download the Further Education and intelligent transport, Training Act 2007 (pdf text 196kb). 2008 Children and literature essays, Young Persons Act. The Children and Young Persons Act (13 November 2008) made provisions about: the delivery of rise of mccarthyism local authority social work services for children and young persons; the functions of childrens literature essays local authorities and others in relation to children and young persons; the enforcement of intelligent research care standards in relation to certain establishments or agencies connected with children; and the independent review of determinations relating to adoption. Download the Children and Young Persons Act 2008 (pdf text 228kb). 2010 Child Poverty Act. The Child Poverty Act (25 March 2010): set targets relating to the eradication of child poverty; and made other provisions about child poverty.

Download the Child Poverty Act 2010 (pdf text 140kb). Three major reviews of the curriculum were undertaken in this period: the government's 'Independent Review of the childrens essays, Primary Curriculum' (IRPC), conducted by Sir Jim Rose, published its interim report in December 2008 and its final report in April 2009; the Cambridge Primary Review, which had begun work in 2006, published Towards a new primary curriculum in February 2009 and proposal, its final report Children, their World, their Education in 2010; the House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee (CSFC) published its report on the National Curriculum in April 2009. Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum. As the Cambridge Primary Review was getting into its stride, Ed Balls threw a spanner into literature essays the works. Of Mccarthyism? On 9 January 2008 he wrote to Sir Jim Rose inviting him to conduct 'an independent review of the primary curriculum' with a view to essays, making 'final recommendations to the Secretary of State by March 2009 so that the new primary curriculum can be introduced from are the essay September 2011'. The government's justification for this new review of primary education was presumably that it had already commissioned a review of the childrens, secondary curriculum and had introduced an early years 'foundation stage'. Resume Header? As Rose put it, you couldn't 'just extend one backwards, the other forwards, tie a knot in the middle and childrens essays, say that's primary education' (Wilby 2008).

However, given that the Cambridge Review - the thin computer, biggest investigation of primary education since Plowden - was already under way, many felt that the Rose review was designed as a spoiler. The government was fed up with adverse headlines like 'Poor performance linked to substandard classrooms', 'Government policy has created impersonalised education', and 'Study reveals stressed out 7 to 11 year olds' (Wilby 2008). It was also concerned that the Cambridge Review would condemn England's testing regime - the hated SATs. So it created the IRPC as a diversion, 'with a suspiciously similar email address, a claim that it too is independent, and childrens, an identical deadline for its final report of spring 2009' (Wilby 2008). There were other concerns about the IRPC. One was that the Qualifications and Curriculum Agency (QCA) was required to sample, produce draft programmes of study based on the report's recommendations during the consultation period, effectively rendering redundant most of the childrens, responses. Another was that the views of representatives of local authorities and teachers' professional associations who attended meetings during the 'informal' consultations were apparently excluded. A third concern was that consideration of SATs tests was 'specifically excluded from Rose's remit' (Wilby 2008). Introducing the IRPC's interim report on 8 December 2008, Rose urged ministers to review the entrance essay, arrangements for SATs (already abolished in all parts of the childrens literature essays, UK except England). 'I'm ruled out of resume header making recommendations about testing', he told Polly Curtis. 'That's not to childrens literature, say every school doesn't ask about testing. It's the elephant in the room' ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). IRPC Interim Report.

The report's main recommendations were: there should be a smoother transition between early years and primary education, and between primary and secondary education; subjects should be combined with cross-curricular study; teachers should have more flexibility within a richer curriculum; there should be more and resume header, better computer education; the value of play to literature essays, children's learning and development should be made explicit in any revisions to the primary curriculum; primary schools should focus on paper computer, teaching only childrens literature one or two foreign languages; children should acquire a range of personal, social and writing, emotional qualities essential to their health, well-being and life as a responsible citizen in the 21st century; and summer-born children should start primary school in the September after their fourth birthday, with some children starting part-time. The report proposed that the primary curriculum should comprise six 'areas of childrens essays learning': understanding English, communication and languages; mathematical understanding; scientific and technological understanding; human, social and environmental understanding; understanding physical health and paper research, well-being; and understanding the arts and childrens essays, design. The Review found overwhelming support for writing college entrance, the National Curriculum and much good practice in schools. It recommended that the childrens literature essays, curriculum should be reviewed periodically but stressed that schools and teachers needed stability so as to be able to plan effectively. The Cambridge Primary Review - Towards a new primary curriculum. In order to contribute to steps essay, the final IRPC report, the Cambridge Review brought forward publication of its material on the curriculum. Essays? Towards a New Primary Curriculum was published on 20 February 2009 in two parts: Past and Present and are the of writing an expository, The Future . Childrens Essays? Its authors commented: Some readers may become impatient with the history, the master proposal, account of witnesses' concerns and our apparent preoccupation with the problematic. For them, solutions are more important. They are of course welcome to turn straight to literature essays, Part 2. Yet it is only by understanding the history, recognising the deeply-rooted and often cyclic nature of the problems, and by accepting the inadequacy of some of the surrounding discourse, that we can make progress. That is why the grounding provided by Part 1 is essential. Without it, we shall simply repeat past mistakes. (Alexander and Flutter 2009a:1) It bemoaned the politicisation of the curriculum and warned that children's lives were being impoverished by the government's insistence that schools focus on literacy and entrance essay, numeracy at the expense of creative teaching.

It argued for a broad, balanced and rich curriculum including art, music, drama, history and geography. In the authors' view, a future primary curriculum must: 'confront and attempt to address the problems and challenges in literature, current arrangements; be grounded in explicit principles of design and implementation; and pursue and remain faithful to a clear and defensible statement of educational aims and values.' (Alexander and Flutter 2009b:21) CSFC Report on the National Curriculum. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee published its report on the National Curriculum on 2 April 2009. The key points in its 32 conclusions and what, recommendations were: the childrens essays, National Curriculum was in 'urgent need of are the steps of writing an expository significant reform': it should prescribe as little as possible, parents should be better informed, the essays, Programmes of Study for the new secondary curriculum were 'overly complex'; the Early Years Foundation Stage and paper, the Early Learning Goals should be reviewed; the childrens literature, curriculum freedoms that academies enjoyed should be immediately extended to all maintained schools; a system of Single Level Tests linked to targets, and potentially to funding, could further narrow the curriculum; the idea that there was one best way to teach was not supported by the research evidence and resume header, so should not be the childrens literature, basis for the delivery of the paper, National Curriculum; the Department should cease presenting the literature essays, National Strategies guidance as a prop for the teaching profession and adopt a more positive understanding of how schools and teachers might be empowered in relation to the National Curriculum; the Department should spend less on producing guidance and more on the dissemination of resume header research findings; the theory and practice of curriculum design should be given a much higher profile within the childrens essays, standards for Qualified Teacher Status; the Department should show how it would support the move to computer research, a much less prescriptive curriculum and less centrally-directed approach to its delivery; there should be better continuity and coherence in the current National Curriculum - and literature, across the National Curriculum, Early Years Foundation Stage and 14-19 arrangements; the rise of mccarthyism essay, Department should take more account of the views of children and young people; the Department should put in literature, place a cycle of master proposal around five years for curriculum review and reform and avoid initiating additional change outside that cycle: reviews should scrutinise the Early Years Foundation Stage, National Curriculum and 14-19 arrangements as a continuum, not as discrete 'chunks'; the agency with main responsibility for the development of the National Curriculum should be truly independent from the Department; like the Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) should be independent of Ministers and required to report to literature, Parliament through the Select Committee; there should be 'an overarching statement of master thesis proposal aims for the National Curriculum' to provide it with 'a stronger sense of purpose, continuity and coherence'; a statement of provision for learners from 0 to 19 should be introduced; there should be 'an overarching diploma' which would replace all other qualifications for childrens literature, learners aged 14 to intelligent transport papers, 19; and these changes must be accompanied by improved communication and co-ordination between teachers and practitioners across the different phases of literature essays education. (CSFC 2009:39-43) The Committee described the Cambridge Review as 'very welcome' but commented that it contained 'extensive analysis of the problems but has not enough to say about what might be done in of mccarthyism essay, practice to address them' (CSFC 2009:23). It went on: The Rose Review and the Cambridge Review both recognise that the literature, primary curriculum is overly full, but neither offers a practical basis that appeals to us for reducing the load. As we have indicated, we would see greater merit in stipulating a basic entitlement for literacy and numeracy and offering general guidelines on resume header, breadth and literature essays, balance to be interpreted by schools and teachers themselves. (CSFC 2009:23) Writing in The Guardian , Robin Alexander described the committee's jibe that the Cambridge Review offered 'a good analysis of the problems but no solutions', as 'bizarre'. Master Thesis? He continued: Apart from the detailed proposals on curriculum aims, substance, structure, development and implementation, which the committee appears not to have noticed, other ideas from the Cambridge review appear, almost verbatim, in the committee's own recommendations: abandoning the national strategies in their present form; supporting local ownership; reconfiguring the roles of national agencies, local authorities and schools; making Curriculum Matters central to initial teacher training. Childrens Literature Essays? More bizarre still, the committee's report includes as an appendix a comparison of the Rose and Cambridge curriculum reports, which says enough to contradict its criticisms of both of them. Writing College Entrance Essay? (Alexander 2009a) Download the CSFC Report on essays, the National Curriculum (pdf text 1.5mb). IRPC Final report. The IRPC's final report was published on 30 April 2009.

Jim Rose said he had tried to 'capture the distinctiveness of the primary phase and to ensure it is recognised as more than a postscript to the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and a prelude to secondary education' (DCSF 2009a:9). The report's key points were: subjects, and thin, the essential knowledge, skills and understanding they represented, were important but were not sufficient - cross-curricular studies were important, too; there should be a stronger focus on curriculum progression; by childrens the age of seven, children should have a secure grasp of the literacy and numeracy skills they needed to make good progress thereafter; the teaching and learning of paper computer research information and communication technology (ICT) should be improved; there should be greater emphasis on personal development through a more integrated and childrens, simpler framework for schools; there should be stronger links between the EYFS and Key Stage 1, and between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3; and 7-11 year olds should be offered 'exciting opportunities' for learning languages. Thin? (DCSF 2009a:10-12) Writing in The Guardian , Mike Baker compared the Rose review with the Plowden report of childrens 1967. He noted that the Plowden committee had had 25 members, including several heads, and had benefited from having six school inspectors and one local authority inspector seconded to it throughout. Of Mccarthyism Essay? It had taken three years and produced 556 pages covering 'the physical development of children, the growth of the brain, parental attitudes, social change, health and social services, and essays, the ways schools were organised, designed and equipped'. By contrast, the Rose review 'was made up of essay one, albeit very experienced, person: Rose himself'.

He had an advisory group of leading heads - which met just five times, his report was only 154 pages long and restricted in scope - his remit didn't even allow him to consider the literature, question of resume header tests. Baker noted that: There is, of childrens essays course, another inquiry currently under way, which aims to match the thoroughness of master thesis proposal Plowden. The Cambridge primary review has been running for two-and-a-half years now. Its remit is broad and it has not been afraid to say things the government does not want to hear. And there is the childrens essays, rub. In the past, governments set up big independent education inquiries; now they prefer to have their own short, sharp reviews - and seem scarcely interested in anything else. (Baker 2009) A statutory consultation on the IRPC's recommendations followed by publication of revised programmes of study and guidance should have enabled the new primary curriculum to be implemented, as planned, in September 2011. But when Labour lost the 2010 general election, Rose's recommendations were lost too.

Cambridge Primary Review - Children, their World, their Education. The Cambridge Primary Review published its final report on 16 October 2009. Essay? The Review had been the most extensive inquiry into primary education since the childrens, Plowden Report forty years earlier, involving 14 authors, 66 research consultants and a 20-strong advisory committee at Cambridge University, led by Professor Robin Alexander. Its final report was based on resume header, 28 research surveys, 1,052 written submissions and essays, reports from dozens of regional meetings. In its 75 recommendations it argued that formal lessons should not start before the intelligent transport research papers, age of six, SATs and league tables should be replaced with teacher assessments in a wider range of subjects, and the system of generalist primary teaching should be reviewed. The report was critical of political decision-making processes. It condemned: centralisation, secrecy and the 'quiet authoritarianism' of the childrens, new centres of power; the disenfranchising of local voice; the rise of unelected and unaccountable groups and individuals taking key decisions behind closed doors: the sample thesis proposal, 'empty rituals' of consultation; the replacement of professional dialogue by the monologic discourse of power; the essays, politicisation of the entire educational enterprise so that it becomes impossible to debate ideas or evidence which are not deemed to be 'on message', or which are 'not invented here'; and, latterly coming to light, financial corruption. (Alexander 2009b:481) It noted that since 1989, and especially since 1997, national government had 'tightened its control over what goes on in local authorities and schools'; and warned that 'the power of government and paper thin computer research, its agencies has reached far more deeply into the recesses of childrens literature essays professional action and thought than is proper in a democracy or good for schools themselves' (Alexander 2009b:508). It noted a growing 'pervasive anxiety' about children's lives, and emphasised the link between educational underachievement and poverty. 'What is thesis worrying is the persistence of a long tail of childrens literature essays severely disadvantaged children whose early lives are unhappy, whose potential is unrealised and whose future is bleak' (Alexander 2009b:71). The Review's conclusions were backed by of mccarthyism essay all the teacher unions. National Association of Head Teachers (NAHT) general secretary Mick Brookes said: This comprehensive study of primary education must be taken seriously by government.

The fact the work in progress has been completely ignored by the government is a sign of weakness. This report is truly independent, unlike work commissioned and controlled by the DCSF which largely says what it wants to hear. There are recommendations in this report that could transform the primary ethos and turn pessimism into hope. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) NUT general secretary Christine Blower said: It is absolutely extraordinary that the government has decided to ignore the Cambridge Review recommendations. Any government worth its salt, particularly in front of an impending general election, would have embraced this immensely rich report as a source of policy ideas. Childrens Essays? It is transport research not too late for essays, the government to recognise that not all good ideas emanate from the minds of civil servants. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And Nansi Ellis, head of education policy and research at the ATL, warned that 'primary education must not become a battlefield in the forthcoming election - children and their learning will be the first casualties' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009). Unsurprisingly, the report was rubbished by the government. Schools minister Vernon Coaker said the government was already reforming the curriculum and testing, and accused Alexander's report of suggesting a 'woolly' accountability system: It's disappointing that a review which purports to be so comprehensive is simply not up to thin computer, speed on many major changes in primaries. The world has moved on since this review was started. If every child making progress and reaching their potential is what matters, then Professor Alexander's proposals are a backward step.' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And just to childrens essays, rub salt into the wound, Balls announced that every four year old in England would be offered a place at school or nursery so that they could start full-time education a year earlier. Rise Essay? The Cambridge Primary Review had recommended delaying the start of formal learning until the age of six ( The Guardian 19 October 2009).

Robin Alexander expressed his disappointment at the reaction of politicians and his frustration that the Labour government, with its 'micro-managed' system, had refused to 'listen, engage and learn' from childrens literature essays independent advice. Essay? He said it was clear from the inaccuracies in their responses that neither government ministers nor their Conservative shadows had actually read it ( The Guardian 24 October 2009). Peter Mortimore, former director of the University of literature London Institute of Education (ULIE), also bemoaned the response of politicians. Writing in The Guardian , he commented: Weep, Cambridge team. Paper Thin? Your efforts to produce clear analyses and innovative ideas in the interest of fostering something better than political point-scoring, repetitive myths and ideological rigidity have been strangled at essays, birth. Console yourselves, however, for good ideas are seldom so easily dismissed.

He concluded: The pity is paper computer research that politicians, who pollsters tell us are only trusted by literature 13% of the population, can so easily make such fools of themselves by endeavouring to close down all thinking outside their own. How much wiser to writing college entrance essay, welcome new ideas and give civil society, including teachers - who are trusted by 82% of the childrens literature essays, population - the chance to debate how best to paper, improve the education of our youngest learners. (Mortimore 2009) For more on the Cambridge Primary Review see the Routledge website for details of Children, their World, their Education which is available as a large format paperback priced £35.99; the Cambridge Primary Review Trust website, which now contains probably the largest single compendium of childrens literature evidence and commentary on English primary education; Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and training. In addition to these three major reviews of the curriculum, in February 2008 the Oxford-based Nuffield Foundation published its final report on education and training for paper thin computer research, 14-19 year olds. Education for All warned that ministers were treating school pupils as if they were business products to be managed rather than children to literature essays, be educated. The government's aim of boosting the British economy was overshadowing the intelligent research papers, true role of childrens schools in resume header, young people's lives. Businesses increasingly ran state schools and essays, even awarded their own A Level-style qualifications. The lead director of the Review, Professor Richard Pring, said: The changes at 14-19 are too often driven by sample master economic goals at the expense of broader educational aims. Childrens? This is reflected in the rather impoverished language drawn from of writing an expository essay business and management, rather than from a more generous understanding of the whole person.

We need to childrens essays, give young learners far more than skills for employment alone, even if such skills are key to the country's economy. Inevitably, the DCSF rubbished the report. A spokesman said: 'This depressing view of education is resume header simply not one that we recognise' ( Oxford Times 14 February 2008). Various documents, including a summary of Education for childrens literature essays, All , can be downloaded from the website of the Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and training . Testing and rise of mccarthyism, assessment. Concerns about the level of testing in English schools - and particularly about the annual SATs tests - intensified during this period.

The QCA urged schools to stop 'drilling' pupils for the tests. Chief executive Ken Boston warned that 'in many schools too much teaching time is taken up with practice tests and preparing for the key stage tests in English, mathematics and science, at the expense of actual teaching in these core subjects and other areas' ( The Guardian 11 August 2007). Three reports for the Cambridge Primary Review highlighted many of the concerns. One found that national tests at childrens literature, 7 and 11 left most children stressed and research, led to a 'pervasive anxiety' about childrens literature their lives and the world they were growing up in. Professor Robin Alexander said 'these findings do build up to resume header, a sense that important changes are needed within the essays, primary sector' ( The Guardian 12 October 2007). Another noted that English children were among the resume header, youngest in the world to start formal learning and were the literature, most tested throughout their education. It found that parents were increasingly seeking alternative forms of education such as home schooling or Steiner schools to free their children from the state sector's regime of testing and are the of writing essay, targets ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). And a third showed that higher test results in England's primary schools had been achieved at the expense of the quality of education offered.

Teacher-pupil relationships had been eroded by a focus on whole-class teaching and preparation for 'high stakes' national tests ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). CSFC Report on Testing and childrens essays, Assessment. A further report, this time by MPs themselves, reached similar conclusions. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Testing and paper computer, Assessment , published in May 2008, warned the government that SATs tests had distorted the education of millions of literature children because schools focused on getting them through the tests rather than improving their knowledge and sample master proposal, understanding. Committee chair Barry Sheerman urged the government to conduct 'a root and branch reform of the system'. The report recommended: an inquiry to childrens literature, find the extent of the of mccarthyism essay, problem of schools 'teaching to the test'; a reduction in the number of times children were tested; more use of internal teacher assessment; whole-cohort tests should be replaced with sample testing of a handful of childrens pupils in each school; and the exams watchdog should conduct 'a full review of assessment standards' as ministers had failed to intelligent research papers, address concerns about grade inflation.

Download Testing and Assessment (pdf text 631kb). Although the government was adamant it would keep the tests in childrens literature essays, England (they had already been abolished in other parts of the UK), it did at resume header, least make some attempt to respond to the worries about childrens essays them by what are the of writing an expository trialling new 'lighter touch' tests. More than 400 schools took part in the two-year 'Making Good Progress' pilot project in which children were tested when their teachers felt they were ready rather than at the end of the key stage. Ministers hoped the literature, new tests, which formed part of the Children's Plan, would replace the existing SATs tests from 2010 ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). They also hoped, no doubt, that the new test regime would silence some of the critics. But disaster was about to strike.

First, schools reported widespread IT problems with the summer's SATs tests: markers struggled with the new online marking system and schools were unable to log on to register students at the start of this week's tests ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). Then the publication of resume header results for childrens literature essays, 11 and sample proposal, 14 year olds was delayed. QCA head Ken Boston said the government's testing regime was under 'very great stress'. He told an emergency Commons select committee meeting that he was considering legal action against childrens essays, ETS, the American company which had failed to deliver the year's SATs results on time. He told journalists that the pressure in the system - including the government's preference for testing 9.5 million pupils a year in order to compile league tables - could have contributed to the problems ( The Guardian 15 July 2008). Then it became clear that the results were not only late, they were also inaccurate. ASCL general secretary John Dunford called for an overhaul of the entire key stage 3 testing system. He said: The government and Ofsted use the SATs results to make judgements about writing college entrance whether schools will fail their inspections and heads can lose their jobs as a result. The results need to be accurate and schools will be much angrier at lack of accuracy than delay. Results will be scrutinised this year as never before and the number of appeals is almost certain to rocket. ( The Guardian 18 July 2008) Kathleen Tattersall, head of the newly-created Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) warned that if the results proved to be as inaccurate as reports suggested, the government should annul them.

And two of the three major exam boards confirmed that they were not bidding for the five-year £165m contract to run the SATs because they did not believe there was a strong enough educational rationale for them ( The Guardian 19 July 2008). Ministers ordered an essays, inquiry into transport research papers the fiasco, to be led by literature Lord Sutherland. When they did eventually appear, the year's SATs results showed that more than a third of pupils starting secondary school had failed to reach the level expected for their age in reading, writing and arithmetic and that the proportion of children scoring top marks had fallen significantly. Head teachers said it could be because schools were neglecting the brightest pupils so as to resume header, focus their effort on getting as many pupils as possible up to the national targets ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In January 2004 David Miliband, then school standards minister, had announced a new system for judging schools.

Since then, schools had been given a 'contextualised value added' score (CVA), which took into account the number of students on free school meals and with special educational needs, ethnicity, age, gender and essays, the spread of ability. Paper Computer? Miliband had said CVA would be a 'fairer' way to childrens literature, judge schools. But in August 2008 a study by Ofsted, Using data, improving schools , concluded that ranking schools by their CVA scores was 'meaningless' and could lead to 'inappropriate conclusions'. Its author, David Jesson, professor of education at the University of York, warned the government to paper research, use CVA 'with care' and 'recognise its limitations'. He argued that CVA could lower teachers' expectations of how much certain groups of pupils could achieve. 'Misusing the data to literature essays, predict future performance could depress expectations of groups of pupils that have performed less well in previous years', he said ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In an extraordinary U-turn, Ed Balls announced that Key Stage 3 SATs tests for 14 year olds would no longer be compulsory. (The change was made in paper computer research, the 2008 Education and Skills Act). But he insisted that the literature essays, even more controversial Key Stage 2 tests for primary school pupils would continue.

He told parliament that there would be extensive changes to the national testing system which would halve the testing burden on schools, and a new 'report card', based on writing college entrance, a New York scheme, which would grade every school in England and give parents more information ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). Teacher unions welcomed the scrapping of the Key Stage 3 tests but expressed 'bitter disappointment' at ministers' resolve to childrens essays, preserve those at writing college, Key Stage 2. NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said: 'We are dismayed at childrens literature essays, the decision to keep the current test arrangements for 11 year olds. This will mean that England's 10/11-year-olds will be the only children in intelligent transport, the UK to essays, be put under this pressure' ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). The government's announcement that Key Stage 3 SATs were effectively to be abolished resulted in writing college essay, a dramatic drop - around fifty per cent - in the number of teachers taking part in courses run by the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Jacqui O'Hanlon, the RSC's director of education, said: 'School managers will not release teachers for a day's training because Shakespeare is no longer seen as a priority' ( The Guardian 26 November 2008). Balls published further details of how his New York-style 'report card' for schools would work. It would pull together all the information currently available about schools into literature essays a single annual document, including test scores, ratings of how quickly children progressed, Ofsted scores and measures of sample thesis proposal child well-being through parent and pupil surveys.

It would provide a single score for childrens, every school with an A-E sliding scale or a traffic light system ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). QCA chief executive Ken Boston resigned three days before the publication of writing college Lord Sutherland's report on the summer's SATs problems, saying he was 'taking responsibility' for the worst exam fiasco to hit schools in recent years. Teaching unions regretted his decision and described him as a great asset to British education ( The Observer 14 December 2008). The acrimonious spat between ministers and childrens literature essays, the QCA came to a head in December. The QCA board disbanded the National Assessment Agency (NAA), responsible for the SATs tests, and computer research, suspended the agency's chief executive, David Gee. It also suspended Boston, having refused to childrens, accept his resignation. Sutherland's inquiry into writing college entrance the summer's SATs fiasco revealed that it was Gee who had recommended that the childrens literature, £156m contract be awarded to sample master, ETS. Sutherland said the the QCA and NAA collectively failed to check ETS's appalling track record in the US.

The report blamed everyone involved: ETS was 'not fit for purpose', the QCA had failed to prevent the marking process spiralling into chaos, and DCSF officials had ignored the warning signs ( The Guardian 17 December 2008). The QCA announced that exam board Edexcel had been awarded a £25m one-year contract to run Key Stage 2 SATs tests and other non-statutory national curriculum tests in childrens literature, 2009. Edexcel had previously held the what are the steps essay, SATs contract from 2005 to 2007. But the QCA warned that the rush to appoint Edexcel to literature essays, run the 2009 tests had left little time to test marking systems to ensure they did not collapse again. Before he was suspended in mid-December Ken Boston had written to Balls, warning him that whilst Edexcel was committed to achieving the deadline, there was 'no guarantee that events will not cause them to miss it' ( The Guardian 31 December 2008). At their annual conference in April 2009 NUT members voted to boycott the Key Stage 2 SATs tests. But instead of debating the sound educational reasons for doing so, they demanded a ten per cent pay rise and a minimum of a day a week to mark and prepare work. Rise Essay? In The Guardian , Jenni Russell commented: What timing.

What judgement. Here were militant employees with secure jobs and good pensions picking this particular moment in our economic history to demand less work for more money. Even the people who - like me - believe in the long-term need for better paid educators were left dumbfounded. At a stroke, the moral authority behind the unions' claims about SATs had withered, and teachers once again looked like people who could be portrayed as whingeing professionals, out for literature, themselves. The government - which has always taken the line that national tests are an essential check on whether teachers are actually doing their job - must have breathed a tremendous sigh of relief. (Russell 2009) Just days after NUT members voted to master thesis, boycott SATs, members of the rival NASUWT union did exactly the opposite: they threatened to strike if ministers abolished the tests. Ed Balls thus faced the possibility of industrial action whatever he chose to childrens, do ( The Guardian 16 April 2009).

The government's proposed new 'lighter touch' testing system - 'single level tests' (SLTs) - had been hit by 'substantial and fundamental' problems. According to The Guardian , unpublished reports of pilot tests conducted by the NAA and five independent academics revealed that the tests had given wildly unpredictable results and subjected children to higher levels of resume header stress than the SATs they were designed to replace ( The Guardian 22 June 2009). By October 2009 more than a quarter of a million people had signed a petition organised by the NUT and NAHT urging the government to scrap Key Stage 2 SATs. The two unions began exploring with their members whether there would be widespread support for a boycott of the tests ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). In April 2010 head teacher members of the NUT and essays, NAHT in England voted overwhelmingly for resume header, a boycott ( The Guardian 16 April 2010).

Ed Balls consulted lawyers over childrens literature whether to mount a legal challenge to the decision ( The Guardian 21 April 2010). Heads accused Balls of urging council chiefs to dock their pay and issue them with written warnings if they refused to administer the tests ( The Guardian 30 April 2010). NUT general secretary Christine Blower told the NAHT annual conference that the number of teachers who said they would boycott the SATs was growing and that at research, least half of England's 17,000 primary schools would not administer the tests ( The Observer 2 May 2010). The SATs began on Monday 10 May - four days after the general election. A quarter of all primary schools boycotted them - a significant proportion but disappointing, given the level of literature essays support for the boycott expressed by heads and resume header, teachers and the hostility to the tests among the wider public. Exams and qualifications. GCSE results in 2007 showed an overall pass rate of 98 per cent with comprehensive schools improving more than independents and grammars in performance at the top grades. Fewer students took French or German, but more took separate exams in chemistry, physics and biology and attained better grades. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: GCSE students this year submitted over essays 26m papers and pieces of intelligent transport coursework.

This bloated exam system is reaching breaking point and must be slimmed down. Childrens Essays? Especially for exams at sample proposal, 16 and 17, greater trust should be placed in the professional judgement of teachers. ( The Guardian 24 August 2007) The government barred state schools from offering Cambridge University exam board's new elite International GCSE in childrens literature essays, core subjects, raising fears that the divide between state and entrance, private schools would grow as independent schools were enthusiastic about the new qualification ( The Guardian 4 November 2009). The QCA said it would - for the first time - intervene in the setting of A Level papers to literature, ensure they were more rigorous. Of Mccarthyism Essay? Heads' leaders welcomed the announcement ( The Guardian 24 November 2007). The Office of the childrens, Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) was launched on 16 May 2008. Its head, Kathleen Tattersall, promised to investigate the paper thin computer, 'reliability' of exams ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). The first five of the government's new diplomas - in construction, media, engineering, IT and society, and health and development - were due to be introduced in September 2008 for 40,000 students in 900 schools and childrens literature, colleges. By 2011 14 vocational diplomas would be available, and in computer research, October 2007 Ed Balls announced that three more diplomas, in science, languages and humanities, would be added to these.

A Levels would be reviewed in 2013 and might be scrapped if the diplomas proved successful, he said. NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said the move represented a 'fundamental change of childrens essays heart' by the government, which, under Tony Blair, had rejected Mike Tomlinson's 2004 proposals to end the rise, historic divide between academic and vocational education ( The Guardian 24 October 2007). In March 2008, Balls announced that an extended diploma with more emphasis on academic skills to prepare students for essays, university would also be introduced in 2011. He hoped the new qualification would be backed by master thesis the universities. Literature? Tomlinson said his original plan had now been fully implemented ( The Guardian 7 March 2008). But the proposal, diplomas were not without their critics: the Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Testing and essays, Assessment , published in May 2008, warned that the introduction of diplomas for resume header, 14 to 19 year olds was in danger of being undermined by insufficient teacher training, and urged ministers to end uncertainty in schools by deciding whether to abolish A Levels and GCSEs after the diplomas were introduced; leading independent schools said the diplomas were too complex and decided to opt out; researchers at ULIE warned of a widening gap between vocational and academic education, as private schools increasingly opted for a new range of literature essays academically elite qualifications, including the international baccalaureates and Cambridge University's Pre-U ( The Guardian 30 June 2008); and in October 2008 the Commons public accounts committee warned that the government's plan to what are the steps of writing an expository, introduce diplomas to replace A Levels and GCSEs in childrens literature essays, England was at risk because the new qualification was not seen as credible by parents, employers and universities. Nearly £30,000 had been spent for each of the 20,000 students who had just started diplomas and it was intended that the papers, courses should be available to childrens literature essays, every 14 to are the an expository, 19 year old within five years. But, the childrens essays, MPs said, the thin computer, government didn't know the future costs of the childrens, scheme, many schools and transport, colleges were not ready, and literature essays, students were confused about the purpose of the diplomas.

To deliver the full range of qualifications, schools and colleges would have to rise essay, link up to essays, form complex consortia, with pupils travelling to different centres to college entrance, study different aspects of the curriculum. The report commended the aim of ending the academic-vocational divide but warned that careers guidance was so poor that pupils might be confused by the extra option of diplomas on top of the GCSEs, A Levels and literature, vocational courses already available ( The Guardian 7 October 2008). Qualifications rapidly became a key election issue. As the 2009 exam results season began, the Conservatives accused the government of of mccarthyism encouraging children to give up academic GCSEs in favour of vocational qualifications. The government accused the Tories of presenting 'misleading' figures ( The Guardian 24 August 2009). There was a clear divide between the aims of literature Ball and Gove. Balls wanted to replace GCSEs and A Levels with diplomas which would span the academic/vocational divide. Gove wanted all children to papers, have a purely academic grounding at least until the age of 16.

Schools and colleges watched anxiously from the childrens essays, sidelines, knowing that they would have the intelligent, responsibility of implementing the childrens, winning policy ( The Guardian 26 August 2009). Andrew Hall took up his post as the new chief executive of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA), facing the possibility that if the Conservatives won the forthcoming general election he might quickly be out of a job ( The Guardian 3 November 2009). Building Schools for master thesis proposal, the Future. The Commons education select committee published its report on the early stages of the £45bn Building Schools for the Future (BSF) programme. It said the scheme should be regularly reviewed and questioned the childrens literature, use of the public finance initiative (PFI) for about half the new projects. Research? Under PFI, private companies constructed the buildings and then leased them back to the schools on long contracts, often 25-30 years.

The committee noted that central government often pressured local authorities into accepting academies as part of the BSF scheme and it argued that local authorities should have more freedom over the regeneration of schools ( The Guardian 9 August 2007). In October 2007 the new Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling announced that every local authority would get a new or refurbished primary school. A £200m fund would pay for building work for 75 schools by 2011, doubling the planned primary school building programme over the next three years ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). But the BSF programme had been beset with problems over its four-year history, as local authorities struggled to set up the childrens literature, PFI partnerships which provided most of the funding. So in April 2008 ministers announced that it would be replaced by a programme to master thesis proposal, build just four new schools in literature, every local authority area. A DCSF spokesman said there were still 'ambitions' for every school to have a plan in place, even if building work hadn't started by 2020 ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). And an writing, audit conducted by the government's architecture watchdog, the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), said that eight out of literature essays ten designs for secondary schools proposed under the BSF initiative were 'mediocre' or 'not yet good enough' and writing college essay, only one in five were considered to be 'good' or 'excellent'. Problems identified in the forty proposed designs which were reviewed by CABE included bullying hotspots in secluded yards, noisy open plan areas which made teaching difficult, and classrooms which were too dark or prone to overheating on sunny afternoons ( The Guardian 21 July 2008). Academies and trust schools. While Tony Blair had been prime minister, Gordon Brown seemed to literature, have little enthusiasm for academies and trust schools - at least, he had said very little about paper thin computer research them until three months before Blair resigned. Then, in literature essays, his first public pronouncement on resume header, the subject, he had praised the 'tremendous success of the academy movement' (The Guardian 20 March 2007).

As prime minister, however, he seemed happy enough for essays, Ed Balls to college entrance essay, continue - indeed, to expand and intensify - the policy of handing over the education of the nation's children to used car salesmen, carpet manufacturers and, of course, 'faith groups'. But the problems and controversies surrounding academies wouldn't go away. Private schools which were struggling financially decided the academies programme was the answer: they could carry on doing much as they wanted but with taxpayers' money. When the essays, government announced it would welcome them as academies, they must have thought Christmas had come early. By August 2007 four were already changing status, two more had applied and research papers, twenty were thinking about it. Other private schools were considering sponsorship of academies and Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, argued that this would help end Britain's 'educational apartheid' ( The Guardian 4 August 2007). A report from childrens literature MPs on the Commons public accounts committee noted routine overspending in the building of academies, with 17 of the first 26 projects overrunning by resume header an average of £3m.

And it warned that academies were still using exclusions to childrens literature, get behaviour under control, breaking laws by procuring services from their sponsors, and failing to engage with local communities ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). Twenty-one universities had been persuaded by ministers to adopt academies, but Oxford and Cambridge rejected the idea, saying they preferred to pursue their 'national role' rather than work with individual schools ( The Guardian 3 December 2007). Arms company BAE Systems, which was under criminal investigation in Britain, the US and Europe over corruption allegations, offered £400,000 to sponsor an academy in writing college essay, Barrow-in-Furness, where it built nuclear submarines. Unsurprisingly, the childrens literature essays, proposal attracted hostility from local parents ( The Guardian 11 December 2007). Major changes at the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) saw its forty-strong council replaced with a new board of twelve directors, and Sir Cyril Taylor, who had chaired the Trust for twenty years, replaced by Sir James Hill, chair of governors of a Bradford academy. Taylor had been a favoured adviser to of mccarthyism, both Tory and Labour governments and his removal from SSAT was seen as reducing the influence of schools minister Lord Adonis. Under Tony Blair, Adonis and Taylor had promoted the academies programme ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). Adonis was subsequently moved from education to the Department of Transport in childrens literature, October 2008.

Desperate to find more sponsors, Ed Balls had already exempted some universities, colleges and schools from raising the of mccarthyism essay, £2m fee to sponsor an academy. Now, the government announced that it would pay successful state schools up to £300,000 to literature essays, sponsor academies or set up new 'trust schools'. Of Mccarthyism Essay? 34 schools had already become trusts and 307 were working towards trust status ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The Church of England announced plans to convert some existing cathedral schools into literature academies as part of its target of resume header establishing a hundred of the schools. The National Secular Society said the childrens literature essays, scheme offered the transport research, church 'subsidies on a breathtaking scale' without helping young people from childrens essays deprived areas.

Already, there were twelve Church of England academies open and 18 more planned, and twenty academies backed by other religious sponsors ( The Guardian 4 February 2008). Adonis said he saw academies as the new generation's grammar schools, offering disadvantaged bright children a 'ladder' out of poverty. He said: My vision is for paper thin computer research, academies to be in the vanguard of meritocracy for the next generation in the way that grammar schools were for literature, a proportion of the post-war generation - providing a ladder, in particular, for essay, less advantaged children to literature, get on, and thin computer research, gain the very best education and qualifications, irrespective of childrens literature wealth and essay, family background, but without unfair selection at the age of 11. Essays? Anti-academy campaigners said that setting up 'quasi-grammar schools' would lead to a two-tier system of education ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). In a paper published by resume header the Reform think-tank, Richard Tice, chairman of Northampton academy and member of the literature essays, United Learning Trust (ULT) board, the largest academy sponsor, said the government should make it easier for academies to exclude the worst-behaved pupils (they were already excluding ten times as many pupils as other state schools) and sack poorly performing teachers. Academy staff should be paid as if they worked in business, he said, with bonuses linked to academic improvements ( The Guardian 25 February 2008).

Balls told Labour's spring conference that academies were 'turning round low-performing schools in disadvantaged communities'; that they had 'fair and comprehensive admissions' and 'even more disadvantaged intakes than their catchment areas'; and that they were 'delivering faster-rising results than other schools'. He announced plans for an extra five academies a year, bringing the annual total to 55. Balls believed that the changes he had made to the governance, curriculum requirements and sponsorship regime of academies would remove concerns that they were going to rise of mccarthyism essay, be selective and childrens, outside the local authority structure ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). But the rise essay, programme came under renewed attack from the literature essays, two largest teacher unions. At their annual conference in Birmingham, members of the NASUWT passed a motion to ballot members on industrial action in schools which were forced to become academies against the wishes of the staff. And the head of the NUT said academies were compelling teachers to choose either to sign legal documents committing them to the 'values' of their new sponsors or to leave their jobs without compensation ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). The government announced 115 new trust schools, including the first co-operative trust school, in what are the steps of writing essay, Stockport, Greater Manchester, where pupils, parents and teachers were to literature, be involved in decision-making ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). As part of the Children's Plan, Balls commissioned an inquiry into the impact of the commercial world on children, including the government's own policy of encouraging schools to link up with businesses. It was to be led by David Buckingham, a professor at ULIE and a leading authority on children and the media ( The Guardian 19 May 2008).

Academies were accused of transport papers poaching the best head teachers from neighbouring schools by offering them six-figure salaries. Ministers claimed that academies had almost doubled the literature, proportion of their pupils getting five good GCSEs but teacher unions said this had been at a cost to other state schools, which were helpless to compete against the high salaries paid by academies ( The Guardian 9 June 2008). The academies programme should be extended to 'failing' primary schools, said the paper thin, liberal think-tank CentreForum in its book Academies . The book's views were supported by all three main political parties and included chapters by Lord Adonis and literature, Conor Ryan, a former education adviser to the Blair government ( The Guardian 16 July 2008). Fifty-one new academies opened in transport research papers, September 2008. Ministers claimed that academies had out-performed other schools in GCSE results but neglected to mention that in nine of the childrens literature essays, 36 oldest academies GCSE scores had declined ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). According to research by insurance company Zurich, private schools were rejecting the government's attempts to encourage them to thin research, sponsor academies - just six per cent of independent schools had considered doing so ( The Guardian 12 September 2008). Paul Prest, the head of literature essays a new academy in Sunderland, suspended forty pupils in the first two weeks of term.

He said the zero-tolerance approach was crucial after pupils had repeatedly breached the rules. Academies' behaviour policies were praised by ministers despite the schools' excessively high rate of exclusions ( The Guardian 19 September 2008). Amey plc, the private sponsor of Middlesbrough's Unity City Academy, told the government it no longer wished to sponsor the school ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). The City Academy Bristol, which the government had listed as one of its 'National Challenge' schools because of its poor performance, announced that it was proposing to of mccarthyism essay, open fee-charging branches in Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The move was promoted by Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, which was also planning to open a number of foreign branches. Ray Priest, the head teacher of the City Academy Bristol, said opening 'branded schools' overseas would help to essays, establish his academy as a 'global educational establishment' ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). An independent inquiry into the academies programme by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC), commissioned by the government, showed that results had improved markedly but that the proportion of pupils the entrance essay, schools took from the poorest homes had shrunk, supporting claims by critics that more able students were being selected to improve results.

The inquiry raised doubts about the planned expansion of the programme and warned of childrens essays shortages of heads and sponsors. Separate figures, obtained by the Liberal Democrats through a parliamentary question, revealed the extent of the drop in sample thesis, the number of childrens literature pupils on free school meals in essay, academies. In 2003, 45 per cent of academy pupils were eligible; by September 2008 the figure was just 29 per cent. The 16 per cent drop in academies compared with a 1.7 per cent fall across England as a whole ( The Guardian 14 November 2008). The PWC inquiry also suggested that some academies had used government funds to establish subsidiary companies and that the government was failing to account for the money private sponsors were allocated ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). The government ordered an inquiry into academy sponsor Edutrust Academies Charitable Trust (EACT), a multi-faith charity chaired by the businessman Lord Bhatia, which, it was alleged, had mishandled money awarded to open a string of academies across England. The DCSF launched an inquiry into childrens essays concerns raised by master proposal the charity's former chief executive, whose contract was terminated days after he complained of irregularities in literature, 'governance and financing' at the organisation ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). Lord Bhatia was forced to resign from the board of EACT after the paper research, inquiry found it had failed to comply with 'financial management requirements' and had 'inappropriate governance arrangements'. Ministers said that a new board would take over control of the Trust's planned academies and would launch a fund-raising campaign to get sponsorship. EACT was due to open eight of the 80 academies being launched in childrens essays, September 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009).

One of the government's newest academies, Richard Rose Central Academy in college, Carlisle, was forced to close for a day when demonstrations by pupils got out of hand. Childrens Essays? Staff threatened to strike over pay cuts, parents demanded an emergency Ofsted inspection, the research papers, school failed and was placed in childrens literature essays, special measures. Intelligent Transport Papers? Chief executive Peter Noble and head teacher Mark Yearsley resigned. Literature? Noble had had no experience as a teacher: he had previously been a manager in the National Health Service (NHS) ( The Guardian 29 January 2009). Schools minister Jim Knight confirmed that the government would consider applications for master thesis, academy status from private schools struggling to stave off closure. Anthony Seldon, head teacher of Wellington College, said becoming an academy would not be the 'move of choice' for many private schools, but it could be their only option. Teachers' leaders said it amounted to a 'bail-out' for failing private schools. Five private schools, including two in Bristol, had already become academies ( The Guardian 31 January 2009).

By 2009, academies were seen by essays both Labour and the Conservatives as the thesis proposal, future of education. The Tories announced that a future Conservative government would extend the scheme to allow primary schools to become academies. But there was still opposition from childrens literature essays parents and local communities: in Furness parents raised a 6,000-signature petition against the imposition of an academy, four campaigners had been elected to the district council, and the campaign group Our Schools Are Not for master thesis, Sale was expected to win seats on the county council; in Northampton plans to essays, replace Unity College, a Church of England secondary school, with an academy were shelved for a year after parents presented a 1,000-signature petition against it; in Croydon an advertisement for the role of principal of one of two academies planned for the borough was published before consultation meetings had taken place; in Durham the are the steps an expository essay, county council and sponsors planned to open three new academies in childrens essays, 2012: there was strong local opposition and thesis, teachers considered industrial action; and there was also strong opposition to childrens essays, academies in resume header, Derby, Dudley, Preston and Tamworth and some sponsors withdrew. ( The Guardian 5 May 2009) The government warned academy sponsors to expect cuts in funding but said it was still planning to expand the number of academies. The controversial schools had received nearly £5bn of public money since they were launched in 2001. 130 academies were already open, 67 were due to open in childrens literature essays, the autumn term 2009 and a hundred more were planned for September 2010.

But EACT warned that some schools, mainly small rural primary schools, might have to research, close if spending was reduced ( The Guardian 29 August 2009). In September 2009 Gordon Brown and cabinet ministers celebrated the literature essays, opening of the 67 new academies. Balls said it was part of the biggest wave of new schools since the Victorian era and resume header, insisted that the government would reach its target of 400 academies. Literature? In a sign that ministers were desperate to keep the academies programme going, he announced that the government would abandon its policy of charging charities, businesses and individuals a £2m sponsorship fee to run the schools. New sponsors would be vetted in an accreditation system based on their educational record. The scheme, he declared, was now moving into a 'new phase' ( The Guardian 7 September 2009). But, Mary Bousted, general secretary of the writing entrance, Association of Teachers and Lecturers, warned: The case hasn't been made for academies. We have a target which will mean one in ten secondaries are academies and the jury is still out on whether academies work. Some academies are excellent, some show very little difference and childrens essays, some have been a disaster.

It can be a dangerous experiment. Of Writing An Expository Essay? If an academy goes wrong that can be catastrophic for childrens essays, the pupils, parents, teachers and the whole community. Intelligent Research? ( The Guardian 7 September 2009) Waltheof School in Sheffield had not been a 'failing' school and had been described by essays Ofsted as making 'reasonable progress' in 2004. But it had been closed and replaced by Sheffield Park Academy, run by ULT, the largest academy sponsor. In July 2009 school inspectors rated it 'inadequate' in all categories. It was the third academy to have failed an inspection. Intelligent Transport Papers? ATL general secretary Mary Bousted said the literature, news strengthened the research, case for literature, a fresh investigation into academies ( The Guardian 13 September 2009). Sheffield Park wasn't the only ULT academy causing concerns. In November 2009 Balls banned ULT from taking on any new schools until it had driven up standards in the 17 it was already running.

ULT, an Anglican charity chaired by former Tory education minister Angela Rumbold, also ran ten private schools ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). In December 2009 Warwick Mansell reported that 13 of the 90 academies which were supposed to have been given private sponsorship money for capital building work had yet to see a penny of it. In total, sponsors had so far paid barely two-thirds of the £145m they were supposed to have paid towards capital costs in the seven years since the writing college entrance, first of England's 200 academies had opened, despite the fact that these financial commitments were written into the contracts academy sponsors had had to sign 'to gain control of decisions on the curriculum, staffing and assets of these quasi-independent institutions, funded mainly by taxpayers' (Mansell 2009b). Staff at Crest Boys' Academy in Neasden, north-west London, held a one-day strike in protest at the announcement that the literature, school's sponsor, EACT, intended to sack seven teachers. According to The Guardian , EACT's director general, Sir Bruce Liddington, enjoyed a salary of resume header £265,000 and had claimed £1,436 for two nights in childrens, luxury hotel suites ( The Guardian 20 April 2010). Conscious of research growing public unease at the increasing number of religious schools, Balls and childrens, leaders of the major faiths published Faith in the System . In return for sample master thesis proposal, state funding of childrens essays their schools (ninety per cent of are the steps of writing building costs and childrens essays, all running costs), faith groups agreed to paper thin computer, 'promote social cohesion'. A further expansion of faith schools was envisaged, despite the childrens, fact that they already made up a third of state schools in England - mostly Church of England or Roman Catholic but including 37 Jewish schools, seven Muslim, two Sikh, one Seventh Day Adventist and college essay, one Greek Orthodox. The ATL warned that too many faith schools discriminated against pupils of other faiths in their admission policies and set religious requirements in childrens, appointing staff. ATL questioned why schools 'in which the majority of are the steps of writing essay funding comes from the state, should, as the government proposes, nurture children in a particular faith' ( The Guardian 10 September 2007). Meanwhile, in Northern Ireland the Roman Catholic Church was instructing its schools to disband Amnesty International support groups because of the organisation's pro-abortion stance ( The Guardian 18 September 2007).

Worse, Bishop of Lancaster Patrick O'Donoghue issued a 66-page document in which he instructed Catholic schools in his area to childrens literature, stop 'safe-sex' education, put a crucifix in every classroom, use science to teach about the 'truths of the faith', only research mention sex within the 'sacrament of marriage', insist that contraception was wrong and prohibit support for childrens essays, charities 'that promote or fund anti-life policies, such as Red Nose Day and Amnesty International, which now advocates abortion'. The Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee summoned Catholic bishops to appear before them to answer charges that they were promoting religious fundamentalism in their schools ( The Observer 30 December 2007). JFS, a Jewish state school in north London, was cleared of racial discrimination against resume header, an 11 year old boy who was denied a place on the grounds that his mother's conversion to Judaism was invalid. High court judge Mr Justice Munby said 'The core aim of essays JFS is to educate those whom it, in common with the OCR [Office of the intelligent research papers, Chief Rabbi], considers to be Jews, irrespective of their practice or observance, and in an ethos which is avowedly Orthodox Jewish. That is childrens literature JFS's aim and that, in my judgement, is in principle an entirely legitimate aim meeting a real need' ( The Guardian 4 July 2008).

In September 2008 it became legal for state-funded faith schools to include religion as a selection criterion for teaching and research papers, non-teaching posts. In response, a coalition of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations launched the 'Accord' campaign to stop state-funded schools from discriminating against students and childrens, teachers on the grounds of religion. Accord's supporters included the scientist professor Colin Blakemore, the former education secretary Tessa Blackstone, novelist Philip Pullman, the philosopher AC Grayling and rabbis David Goldberg and are the steps, Jonathan Romain. Goldberg said faith schools caused people 'to live parallel lives' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). Krishna-Avanti primary school in Harrow opened as Europe's first state-funded school for Hindus amid continued concern about the divisive nature of childrens essays faith schools. It had thirty pupils in its temporary base at Little Stanmore primary school, but would eventually have 236 pupils in a £10m building which would include a meditation garden. Jonathan Romain, commented: 'Some parents will feel reassured by paper thin a school that shares their faith and cultural background, but everybody should also be aware of the impact this may have - limiting their children's knowledge of and interaction with children from other cultures, and also depriving other community schools of Hindu participation' ( The Guardian 15 September 2008).

Year eight pupils at St Monica's Roman Catholic High School in Prestwich, Greater Manchester, were to childrens literature, have been vaccinated against cervical cancer as part of the government's £100m programme to vaccinate all 14 to 18 year old girls. But the school's governors banned the girls from having the vaccination at paper thin, school, against childrens, the advice of the Catholic Education Service, which backed the government's campaign against the human papilloma virus ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). The Runnymede Trust, a charity set up to promote good race relations, published a report on the way faith schools operated in England. It said the schools should stop selecting pupils according to their religion and do more to serve the most disadvantaged children. Rob Berkeley, the trust's deputy director and author of the report, said: Given the importance of issues around cohesion, it's time for a shift, so that schools that are funded by taxpayers are responsive and reflect the what are the, needs of all pupils and not just those of a particular religion. It's clear from looking at the data on free school meals that faith schools educate a disproportionately small number of literature essays pupils with lower socio-economic status. ( The Guardian 4 December 2008) Ed Balls asked Ofsted to carry out a survey of the 'moral values' of independent faith schools after concerns were raised about Muslim schools. Inspectors were to look at resume header, the schools' curricula, extra-curricular activities and links with external organisations. Since 2003, independent schools had been required to essays, enable pupils to develop their self-knowledge, self-esteem and resume header, self-confidence, to childrens essays, distinguish right from wrong, to respect the law, to have a broad general knowledge of what steps of writing an expository England's public institutions and services and to appreciate and childrens essays, respect their own and other cultures in a way that promoted 'tolerance and transport, harmony between different cultural traditions' ( The Guardian 9 March 2009). In November 2009 the childrens, TES reported that booster classes for primary and GCSE pupils were being held in four Muslim supplementary schools (madrassas) in Bradford. The pilot scheme, funded with £550,000 of public money over three years, was said to be making a difference to pupils' exam results, but the rise, scheme was controversial.

National Secular Society president Terry Sanderson said: These institutions are devoted almost entirely to pumping Islam into essays the heads of their pupils. We need to know who will keep tabs on writing college entrance, these indoctrination centres to ensure taxpayers' money is properly spent. Although there is no suggestion that the Yorkshire scheme is childrens literature essays suspect, if this kind of idea rolls out, who knows what will happen? ( TES 6 November 2009) Covert selection by faith schools. Schools minister Jim Knight warned schools he would crack down on any breaches of the new admissions code, which had been in operation for twelve months and was designed to prevent selection and social segregation, after it emerged that nearly eighty schools - mainly faith schools - had been reported to the admissions watchdog and accused of covertly selecting more able students ( The Guardian 18 January 2008). Research by ULIE academic Rebecca Allen offered damning new evidence that faith schools were indeed siphoning off middle-class pupils and failing to take children from the poorest backgrounds. In deprived inner-city areas, religious schools admitted ten per cent fewer poor pupils than was representative of the local area, whereas local authority secondary schools accepted thirty per cent more and resume header, therefore had a disproportionately deprived intake. The result was a school system deeply divided by social class ( The Observer 2 March 2008). Allen's research also showed that faith schools admitted over childrens fifty per cent more pupils in research, the top quarter of the ability range ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). The chief schools adjudicator, Philip Hunter, said more than half of all school authorities - local councils and faith schools - were breaching the new admissions code, which aimed to literature essays, prevent the covert selection of pupils.

There had been 'widespread' failure by schools to remove discriminatory questions about college parents' marital and employment status from application forms and to childrens literature, make clearer the definitions in their admissions rules. He confirmed Balls's view, expressed earlier in rise of mccarthyism, the year, that the bulk of the problems were in faith schools ( The Guardian 4 November 2008). A revised version of the School Admissions Code was published in literature essays, December 2008. Research Papers? It banned schools from holding interviews or asking parents to make financial contributions or offer practical support. All admissions authorities - including faith schools - were to consult with parents and the local community and improve the literature, information parents received on the admissions process ( The Guardian 4 December 2008). In June 2008 Balls launched a concerted attack on selective education and the 164 remaining grammar schools. In a speech to the NCSL's annual conference in Birmingham, he said: 'Let me make it clear that I don't like selection. Are The An Expository Essay? I accept though that selection is a local decision for parents and childrens essays, local authorities.

But I do not accept that children in secondary moderns should be left to fall behind.' He promised £1m for essay, every struggling secondary modern to enable them to set up partnerships with other schools ( The Guardian 20 June 2008). Former chief schools adjudicator Peter Newsam suggested that England's grammar schools could be turned into sixth-form colleges ( The Guardian 17 November 2009). Meanwhile, in childrens literature essays, Northern Ireland Sinn Fein education minister Catriona Ruane had abolished the official 11 plus test but Roman Catholic grammar schools in the province - along with 34 state grammar schools whose pupils were mostly Protestant - were determined to fight the rise of mccarthyism essay, decision. Childrens Literature Essays? In September 2009 the Catholic schools set their own private entrance exams, against the advice of their bishop. Parents who couldn't get their children into the grammar schools without taking the tests were expected to mount a legal challenge ( The Guardian 8 September 2009). Ulster Unionists refused to support the transfer of policing and justice powers to the Stormont assembly on 7 March - the 'Hillsborough' deal which was vital to of mccarthyism essay, keep the assembly in operation - unless an agreement could be reached on testing primary school children ( The Guardian 12 February 2010). The Charity Commission issued new guidance warning private schools that they could be stripped of their charitable status - along with £100m a year in literature, tax concessions - if they were found to be operating as 'exclusive clubs' for the rich. It suggested that the schools should share their facilities and teachers with state schools or offer bursaries.

Independent school leaders welcomed the guidance, but some MPs said it did not go far enough ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The new head of the Independent Schools Council, former rear admiral Chris Parry, caused intense controversy when he described some state school pupils as 'unteachable' and their parents as 'ignorant'. He resigned after less than seven weeks in the job ( The Guardian 13 June 2008). 'Failing' schools: The National Challenge. In February 2008 Balls told The Guardian that he was planning to send teams of expert leaders into 638 'failing' state secondary schools.

Local authorities had until the summer to develop individual 'action plans' for intelligent transport papers, the schools and literature, if they didn't improve they would have to become academies or trust schools, or close altogether ( The Guardian 25 February 2008). A fortnight later, Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling warned that the deadline for the 638 schools to improve or face closure would be brought forward to 2011. College Entrance? He announced a £200m plan to childrens essays, give the schools intensive support ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). Balls launched the 'National Challenge' on 10 June 2008, with funding of £400m. Its target was that at entrance essay, least thirty per cent of pupils in each secondary school should achieve a minimum of five A*-C grade GCSEs including English and maths by childrens literature essays 2011.

It aimed to tackle 'the link between deprivation and attainment' and offered 'targeted help for teaching and learning', support to develop strong leadership, the flexibility to of mccarthyism essay, design 'local bespoke solutions' and 'more radical changes' such as the setting up of academies and National Challenge Trusts 'where this would benefit the school'. Each school was to have a dedicated adviser working closely with the head, supporting the school directly and childrens, brokering additional support, tailored to the school's needs. The formation of resume header partnerships between schools would be encouraged. But the language was not all positive. Local authorities were told (yet again) to produce within fifty days detailed 'action plans' for each of the 638 secondary schools which the government deemed to be 'failing'. The schools would be given three years to improve or face being closed down, merged or turned into academies ( The Observer 8 June 2008). The last option would surely have been problematic in the case of several of the schools, which were already academies . ASCL general secretary John Dunford warned that 'The constantly increasing target for the number of academies is not helpful and will create turmoil where consistent, steady improvement is the literature essays, proper aim of school leaders and intelligent transport research papers, governors.' While the £400m injection was welcome, schools would 'not be helped by the threat of closure or academy status which will hang over many of these schools for the next three years', he said ( The Guardian 11 June 2008). The NUT challenged ministers' claims that there were 638 'failing' schools. An analysis of literature essays Ofsted reports had shown that a quarter of the schools were among the paper, best in the country and a third were in the top forty per cent. Half were considered to essays, be satisfactory and meeting pupils' needs.

NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower wrote to the heads of the college entrance essay, 638 schools offering support in fighting against the 'arbitrary target' and threat of closure. Schools minister Jim Knight agreed that some of the schools were doing 'an incredibly good job' but he said they would need further support 'to hit our target' ( The Guardian 21 June 2008). Balls announced that schools which were achieving satisfactory results but were failing to essays, improve were to be labelled 'coasting' and given targeted support to improve or face intervention from their local authorities. Councils would be asked to nominate schools which had average or better GCSE results but were resting on their laurels because of transport research papers 'complacent' head teachers. Hundreds of schools were expected to childrens essays, be identified, including some grammar schools. Teacher unions warned against putting 'crude' labels on schools ( The Guardian 13 November 2008). The DCSF added eighty more schools to the National Challenge list of 'failing' schools, bringing the total to 440.

However, data in the annual school league tables showed that more than 200 of these schools had done well enough to move above the sample master thesis proposal, government's threshold of thirty per cent of pupils getting five good GCSEs including English and maths. 17 of the 63 academies reporting GCSE results were among the worst performing 200 schools in essays, England ( The Guardian 15 January 2009). In June 2009 Balls wrote to all local authorities in England with National Challenge schools. He told them the schools must dramatically improve their results, merge with more successful schools, become academies, or close ( The Guardian 16 June 2009). The QCA published plans for a reduced curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds in rise of mccarthyism essay, England, to childrens, be introduced from September 2008.

A quarter of the sample thesis proposal, school timetable would be set aside for students to childrens literature essays, improve their basic skills or develop their strengths. The new regime would include cookery (though unions feared many schools no longer had the facilities for this), citizenship (to include work on 'British values' and 'national identity'), and an optional 'economic well-being and financial capability' strand in PSHE, which was now said to refer to 'personal, social, health and economic well-being' ( The Guardian 13 July 2007). In September 2007, Balls announced a catch-up programme for writing skills in primary schools, and the establishment of an independent exam standards body reporting directly to parliament. Some educationists feared that, with its watchdog powers removed, the writing entrance, weakened QCA might be subject to more interference from ministers. Balls also announced that a new national body would decide pay for teaching assistants and other support staff ( The Guardian 27 September 2007). Leading authors complained that publishers were putting pressure on them to write more simplistic texts to win multi-million pound contracts with exam boards. Elizabeth Haylett, secretary of the Society of Authors educational writers group, said: 'The textbooks that are being used are being reduced to answer books for the exams. There's no opportunity for childrens literature essays, children to read beyond the test. They are learning parrot-fashion.' One science textbook author had even been told to write a factually incorrect answer because there was an error in the curriculum and computer research, the book had to childrens, match ( The Guardian 1 December 2007).

The Children's Plan promised that by 2010 learning a foreign language would be compulsory for all primary pupils. But there were problems at secondary level. In 2007 the number of candidates taking GCSE French was eight per cent lower than in the previous year, German more than ten per cent lower. Research for the National Centre for rise essay, Languages showed that more than half of England's secondary schools were now teaching languages to less than half their GCSE pupils. To attempt to revive language teaching in schools, ministers announced that a £53m package (£5m more than in essays, the previous year): pupils would be offered intensive language classes and university students would be sent into schools as 'ambassadors' for languages ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). In 2007 Richard Caborn, then sports minister, had sought to of mccarthyism, promote gun sports.

In the essays, year following his remarks, gun groups claimed that the number of schools providing rifle ranges for pupils had 'surged'. One local authority was planning to rise of mccarthyism essay, introduce shooting at 16 of its schools, and an academy due to open in September 2008 in a deprived area of south Bristol was to have a shooting range. Meanwhile, the Home Office reported a four per cent rise in childrens, gun crime during the third quarter of 2007. Lyn Costello, co-founder of Mothers Against Murder and research, Aggression said: There is no reason why children should play with toy guns at five let alone real ones at childrens literature essays, 15. Writing College Entrance? In the present climate we should not be encouraging children to use guns. We have to stop this . Childrens Literature Essays? It's disgusting that on a weekly basis young people are being killed and what are the of writing an expository, then we're spending taxpayers' money on teaching them to shoot. ( The Guardian 26 January 2008) The government committed £775m over three years to increase the literature, minimum amount of school sport from master two to five hours a week by literature 2012. Specialists said that without major changes to the system, particularly in specialist teacher training, the five-hour target might not be achievable ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the ATL heckled schools minister Jim Knight when he suggested it was 'perfectly acceptable' to college essay, teach maths to pupils in classes of up to 70 ( The Guardian 20 March 2008). A study of the literature essays, progress of 500 children by papers researchers from ULIE into the Every Child a Reader project showed that individual tuition helped to reduce the gender gap ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The government was determined that young children should be taught to childrens, read using basic phonics, to write short sentences and to use punctuation. It commissioned academics at ULIE to look into intelligent transport the effectiveness of these policies.

Unfortunately for the government, the literature, research showed that teaching phonics, sentences and punctuation to young children had little effect on their literacy skills later on, and of mccarthyism essay, that encouraging them to talk and communicate was more effective. So the government suppressed the report, which was released under a Freedom of Information Act request by the Liberal Democrats ( The Guardian 14 July 2008). As the new school year began, heads warned that pupils and teachers faced some of the biggest education reforms in twenty years, including: a new early years foundation stage with nurseries having to assess pupils as young as three; a new secondary curriculum for childrens essays, 11 to 14 year olds; new requirements for essay, GCSEs ('functional' maths and childrens literature essays, English tests); changes in A Level syllabuses; new diploma qualifications; and the raising of the school leaving age to 17 by 2013 and to 18 by 2015. Writing College Entrance? ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: 'There's never in my experience been so many changes in literature essays, such a short time. Add to that the ambitions of the Children's Plan and it is a massive agenda for every school in the country. It's too much at once. Master? Each of these changes has merit but the problem is the numbers that are coming at one time' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). An Ofsted report on the teaching of maths suggested that more pupils were getting qualifications but they often lacked understanding of mathematical concepts because they were being drilled to pass exams ( The Guardian 19 September 2008).

Schools minister Lord Adonis criticised schools for neglecting their brightest pupils. Speaking at a conference at Brunel University, he said a quarter of primary schools had failed to take part in the compulsory 'Gifted and Talented' programme, and he urged parents to demand more attention from teachers if they felt their children had a particular talent. He also revealed plans for six private schools in London to share their cadet facilities with state school pupils as a way of literature breaking down barriers between the independent and state sectors ( The Guardian 20 September 2008). A report by the National Council of college Education Excellence, a body set up by Gordon Brown, suggested that schools in England should be rated according to the proportion of their pupils who went on literature, to top universities ( The Guardian 3 October 2008). A report from the National Audit Office said the Labour government's drive to improve the nation's mathematical skills had levelled off, with nearly a quarter of 11 year olds failing to reach the college essay, expected level at the end of primary school.

Girls were falling behind boys and childrens literature, needed particular attention. The report suggested that teachers were failing to spot children who were falling behind because they were not doing enough high-quality testing ( The Guardian 19 November 2008). A House of Lords committee report, The Cumulative Impact of thesis Statutory Instruments on Schools , urged Ed Balls to stop deluging schools with new regulations. Members were told that in literature essays, 2006-7 the DCSF and what steps, its national agencies produced over 760 documents aimed at schools. 'No single part of the childrens literature essays, department was aware of the totality of research what was being offered', the childrens literature essays, report said. Head teachers welcomed the essay, report. Childrens Literature Essays? ASCL general secretary John Dunford said a 'juggernaut of transport research papers policies, laws and regulations hurtles at ever increasing speed towards us, seemingly out of control'. Literature? Schools in England had been besieged by 79 policy consultations and at sample master thesis proposal, least 300 announcements from the DCSF in literature essays, 2008 and expected an even greater number in 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009). Dunford was also concerned that the rise, government was promoting what he described as the 'Tesco model' of childrens essays schools.

He told the ASCL's annual conference in Birmingham that Ed Balls saw Whitehall as the company headquarters and heads and teachers as 'branch managers and shelf-fillers'. Essay? He went on: This Tesco management model of England Schools plc . is all summed up in that dreadful word 'compliance'. Compliance, I used to read in management books, is the lowest form of literature essays commitment, to intelligent transport research papers, be encouraged in those who have no job flexibility, no initiative and limited intelligence. Is this what ministers really want of their school leaders? I sincerely hope not. Yet that is how it sometimes feels.

He said 'delivery' was the childrens, job of postal workers and midwives, not teachers and head teachers ( The Guardian 15 March 2009). Ofsted inspectors visited 37 schools to assess how well they had implemented the new secondary curriculum introduced in September 2008. Four of the schools were judged to have done so 'outstandingly', 21 were deemed 'good', eight were 'satisfactory' and one was 'inadequate' ( The Guardian 25 June 2009). In 2007 the government had announced plans to introduce a single funding mechanism for all nurseries, in the state and private sectors, for intelligent transport papers, the free 12.5 hours of childcare it had promised to provide for all three and essays, four year olds in England. It now asked local authorities to resume header, confirm by April 2010 how they would meet that pledge for September, when the entitlement would rise to 15 hours. State nurseries had historically received far more funding than private ones, and head teachers warned that, with no extra money on offer, the result would be a large transfer of government funding from state nurseries to childrens literature essays, private ones run for intelligent transport papers, profit ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). Ofsted visited 54 schools to evaluate the effectiveness of the national literacy and numeracy strategies. It found that in childrens literature, more than half the secondary schools and a third of primary schools, the programme had not rooted out 'weaknesses in basic teaching skills'. Paper Computer? The concentration on childrens, English, maths and science had 'risked the neglect of other subjects' and teachers and local authority officers felt burdened by the deluge of initiatives which accompanied the strategies.

Ed Balls had already announced that the national strategies would be scrapped as part of a move to end centralised control and promote more collaboration between schools ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). Summerhill, the famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) Suffolk independent boarding school where children decide how to spend their time, swearing is allowed and, weather permitting, staff and students can sunbathe in the nude, had had a long battle with the government. It had even been threatened with closure in 1999, when Ofsted gave it a scathing report. The pupils were 'foul-mouthed' and resume header, the school had been guilty of 'mistaking idleness for personal liberty', inspectors said. But Ofsted's 2007 report on the school was glowing. 'Pupils' personal development, including their spiritual, moral, social and cultural development, is childrens essays outstanding', the intelligent research, inspectors concluded. Students were 'courteous, polite and literature essays, considerate', made 'good progress' and were 'well-rounded, confident and mature' when they left ( The Guardian 1 December 2007). In December 2007 Ofsted announced plans to improve the system for monitoring classroom standards. Are The Steps Of Writing An Expository? From 2009 its inspectors would conduct 'snap visits' to schools without giving the normal 48 hours' notice and literature essays, would make greater use of 'local intelligence' - complaints from resume header parents - to childrens literature, investigate schools where standards were feared to be slipping ( The Guardian 13 December 2007). Chief inspector Christine Gilbert announced another shake-up of the inspection regime in February 2008.

She told the National Academies Conference in London that the best schools would only be visited once every six years while those which were satisfactory or worse could face annual inspections until they improved. Are The Steps An Expository Essay? She added that Ofsted would focus more on childrens, the 'shocking' number of pupils who left primary schools without mastering the three Rs ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). ULIE researchers said schools were manipulating the system of 'lighter touch' Ofsted inspections to college entrance, exaggerate their success. Self-evaluation forms, introduced in 2005, allowed head teachers to give rosy judgements of their success which inspectors then failed to investigate, they said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). In May 2008 Gilbert announced two further changes in childrens, the Ofsted inspection regime. First, she told the Commons education select committee that there would be more lesson observation, following criticism that Ofsted reports focused too much on schools' test results and not enough on sample thesis, what was happening in the classroom. She also raised new concerns about poorly performing teachers, saying that it often took too long to 'get rid of them' ( The Guardian 15 May 2008). Then she unveiled reforms to Ofsted inspections designed to intensify pressure on the lowest-performing and 'coasting' schools which were failing to improve. Standards had 'stalled', she said, and 'the gap between outcomes for specific groups of children and young people and the majority remains too large' ( The Guardian 20 May 2008).

In August 2008 it was revealed that Ofsted was sending out letters to children as young as four setting out essays, complaints about their schools. Thin? In some cases the letters had warned the literature essays, children that their teachers were not preparing them properly for their 'future adult lives'. NASUWT general secretary Chris Keates said the resume header, letters were 'ill-conceived' and called for them to be scrapped. 'These letters often over-simplify the outcomes of inspections and in doing so misrepresent the findings,' she said. Childrens Essays? 'The letters in effect give licence to pupils to thin research, question the professionalism of the literature essays, school and its staff.' An Ofsted spokeswoman said the transport research papers, letters were 'a valuable tool in engaging pupils in literature, both the inspection and subsequent school improvement' ( The Guardian 16 August 2008). In January 2009 Gilbert announced that Ofsted was to launch a crackdown on 'boring' teaching in response to concerns that children's behaviour was deteriorating because they were not being stimulated enough in class. Inspectors would be told to resume header, advise struggling schools on what was going wrong in their lessons and essays, why pupils were not paying attention, she said ( The Guardian 5 January 2009). Ofsted came under attack from children's services chiefs, head teachers' leaders and MPs.

It was accused of being 'flawed, wasteful and failing'. Its new inspection regime was forcing social work departments to focus on are the an expository, passing inspections instead of looking after children, good schools were rated as mediocre on routine technical matters and some sub-contracted inspectors were not fit for the job. Former chief inspector Sir Mike Tomlinson suggested that Ofsted had been struggling to cope since its responsibilities had been expanded to childrens essays, include inspecting children's services as well as schools and childcare ( The Guardian 23 November 2009). Ofsted's annual report said there had been a sustained four-year increase in intelligent papers, the number of schools rated good or outstanding, but that some schools were being held back by a 'stubborn core' of bad teachers who were failing to childrens essays, inspire their classes ( The Guardian 24 November 2009). The new head of the writing essay, General Teaching Council (GTC), Keith Bartley, said around 17,000 'substandard' teachers were struggling in classrooms and literature essays, failing to inspire their pupils. Of Mccarthyism? Middle-aged male teachers were a particular worry.

Teachers needed retraining throughout their careers to essays, prevent them becoming disaffected, he said ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). NUT Conference March 2008. At their annual conference in are the steps of writing, Manchester NUT members threatened to childrens literature, strike if the government did not promise to cut classes to no more than twenty pupils by 2020. Rise Essay? They said large classes were putting some schools under intolerable pressures ( The Guardian 22 March 2008). The conference heard evidence of childrens literature essays a crisis in children's happiness and steps of writing an expository, mental health and debated calls to scrap the most restrictive elements of the national curriculum and literature, reverse a government order that literacy be taught through phonics.

NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said teachers wanted a system which was 'liberal and flexible' and steps, not imposed by government. Literature Essays? 'We want a return to a time when there was a potential for magic moments in the classroom', he said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). NUT members expressed concern about what steps of writing an expository essay research which showed that faith schools were fuelling social, ethnic and religious segregation and childrens literature, flouting admissions laws. Extraordinarily, their solution was to prevent the proposal, establishment of more single-faith schools but to provide religious facilities - faith-based instruction, prayer rooms and visits by imams, rabbis and priests - in all schools. Secularists were not impressed. Literature Essays? National Secular Society director Keith Porteous Wood pointed out steps of writing, that a large majority of childrens literature essays secondary school pupils said they were not religious. 'It's outrageous that a teaching union should be proposing to introduce religious instruction in sample master proposal, schools', he said. 'If parents feel that strongly about religious instruction it should happen in the home or place of worship' ( The Guardian 25 March 2008). Members also voted to launch a campaign against military recruitment campaigns in schools.

The union said it had complained to Ed Balls that 'misleading propaganda' in some lesson materials prepared with Ministry of Defence (MoD) backing undermined schools' legal duty to present controversial issues in childrens essays, a balanced way. One worksheet supplied by the MoD said the what are the of writing essay, British army was 'helping the Iraqis to rebuild their country after the essays, conflict and paper computer, years of neglect'. It did not mention the US-led invasion, the countless Iraqi civilian deaths or the fact that not a single weapon of mass destruction had ever been found ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). NUT members staged a one-day strike on 24 April 2008 and literature essays, warned that there would be more if the computer research, government did not improve its pay offer ( The Guardian 25 April 2008). It was the first national NUT walk-out since 1987, when Margaret Thatcher was prime minister. The shortage of head teachers became an increasing concern during this period. In September 2008 one thousand schools started the new school year without a permanent head teacher. Teachers' leaders, already alarmed at the growing number of childrens vacancies in both primary and secondary schools, were furious when it was revealed that the DCSF had drawn up a secret list of heads and senior teachers who could be poached to run academies when positions arose ( The Observer 14 September 2008).

The annual survey of headship vacancies by Education Data Surveys (EDS) showed that England and Wales faced a chronic shortage of heads, despite £100,000 salaries being offered for paper, some posts ( The Guardian 9 January 2009). Ed Balls told the School Teachers' Pay and Review Body (STRB) that he wanted schools to be free to decide what to pay head teachers who agreed to help lead struggling schools. He told parliament: To recognise the greater responsibility associated with running a number of schools, I will be encouraging governing bodies to make responsible use of the flexibilities that they already have to determine an appropriate level of pay for these heads in a way that is not constrained by the maximum of the essays, leadership pay range but is appropriate, fair and transparent. These are interim arrangements while the STRB look in greater depth in the coming year at new pay arrangements for school leaders that will recognise and sample, reward the vital contribution that they will make to literature essays, the delivery of our vision of the twenty-first century school. ( The Guardian 23 June 2009) In January 2010 EDS reported that some secondary schools were now offering six-figure salaries, relocation packages and private health insurance, but were still finding it increasingly hard to recruit head teachers. Scores of posts were being filled by temporary and acting heads and one school in London had had to advertise six times. More than forty per what steps of writing essay cent of all secondary headships and 35 per cent of primary headships had had to be readvertised in 2009. John Howson, the former government adviser who conducted the study, said the shortage was deeply worrying. 'The ease with which schools can recruit a head teacher is literature essays a key measure of the health of the entrance essay, profession,' he said ( The Guardian 28 January 2010). At their annual conference in childrens literature essays, Torquay, members of the ATL heard the results of a survey of transport research papers behaviour in UK schools. Of the 800 teachers questioned, one in ten said they had been attacked and injured by violent pupils; three out of childrens essays ten said they had experienced 'physical aggression'; three quarters said they had been threatened or insulted by a pupil. Almost all reported problems with low-level disruption.

ATL general secretary Mary Bousted told the conference: 'No teacher should have to tolerate these unacceptable levels of poor pupil behaviour and certainly no one should be attacked in school' ( The Guardian 17 March 2008). Ed Balls announced that heads were to be granted new powers to essay, search pupils for alcohol, drugs and childrens, stolen goods. He had asked Sir Alan Steer, who was carrying out a review of behaviour in schools, to draw up proposals to extend teachers' 'stop-and-search' rights. Heads already had the right to search pupils suspected of carrying knives and master, had been given guidance on how to use airport-style metal detectors to screen young people ( The Guardian 27 March 2008). The government published a white paper setting out plans to literature, reform the system of pupil referral units (PRUs) for disruptive pupils. £26.5m would be spent trialling new specialist centres which would be run by private companies, charities and academies, who would be allowed to college essay, make a profit. Every child would have a tailored plan for improving their behaviour and school results, league tables for PRUs would be published, and essays, all schools would be expected to take their 'fair share' of excluded pupils ( The Guardian 21 May 2008). The government announced that secondary schools and colleges in England would receive £720,000 over resume header two years to train 'pupil mentors', who would learn how to defuse arguments through discussion and childrens essays, listen sensitively to classmates with family problems. Paper Thin Research? Ministers said a pilot project of 3,600 pupils in 180 schools over the previous two years had been a success ( The Guardian 30 December 2008). Steer Report: Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned.

Commissioned by Ed Balls and published in April 2009, this was a follow-up to the Steer committee's first report Learning Behaviour which had been published in 2005. Steer said good teaching was a prerequisite for good behaviour: 'The need for consistent good quality teaching, as the basis for raising standards and childrens essays, reducing low level disruption, has been highlighted both by Ofsted and fellow practitioners' (DCSF 2009b:3). The report stressed: the sample master proposal, importance of early intervention and of disseminating good practice advice to schools; appropriate engagement of and support for pupils, withdrawal from classes where appropriate; the engagement of childrens essays parents should be supported and strengthened, with more consistent use of parenting contracts; the role of local authorities in prioritising support for thesis proposal, schools and making provision for excluded pupils; and childrens literature, the roles of local authorities and children's trusts in relation to behaviour and attendance partnerships. Download the 2009 Steer Report Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned (pdf text 2.1mb). Ed Balls launched a £3m scheme to resume header, train teenagers to counsel their younger schoolmates and offer 'conflict resolution' to tackle bullying ( The Guardian 15 November 2007). A British Council survey found that almost half of essays UK secondary school pupils regarded bullying as a problem in their school - a higher proportion than in the rest of Europe. There was considerable variation between parts of the UK: the figure for England was 48 per cent, Scotland 43 per cent and Wales 32 per cent.

However, 42 per cent of UK students said they were happy in school most of the time compared with 33 per master thesis proposal cent on average in the rest of Europe ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). A Stonewall survey of gay school students found that 41 per cent reported physical attacks and half said teachers themselves had made homophobic remarks. Childrens Literature? The DCSF issued new guidance to schools on preventing and dealing with homophobic bullying. Of Mccarthyism? Ed Balls said: 'We wanted to make sure that within the overall anti-bullying guidance there was specific guidance on homophobic bullying' ( The Guardian 29 January 2008). An ATL survey showed that homophobic abuse was endemic in schools, with 'gay' the most commonly used insult in the classroom. Childrens Literature? There was a 'conspiracy of research silence' in schools and colleges so that homophobia was seen as normal. Some teachers even feared becoming targets of abuse themselves if they challenged students' behaviour ( The Guardian 11 March 2008). Parents who withdrew their children from Gay History Month lessons at George Tomlinson primary school in Waltham Forest were told that their absences would be regarded as truanting. A local council spokesperson said it was right that schools were tackling homophobia: Waltham Forest council wants to promote tolerance in childrens, our schools by teaching children everyone in our society is of equal value.

This is a core part of the national curriculum for all schools in the country. Writing Entrance Essay? We are supporting teachers and schools in taking positive and innovative steps to develop children's ability to respect people's differences. A group of literature rabid homophobes from intelligent a Baptist church in childrens essays, Kansas threatened to picket George Tomlinson school but their leader, Fred Phelps, was barred from entering Britain to stop him spreading 'extremism and hatred' ( The Guardian 20 March 2009). In March 2009 Stonewall published its Teachers' Report Homophobic bullying in Britain's schools as part of resume header its Education for All campaign. Its key findings were that: nine in ten secondary school teachers and more than two in five primary school teachers said children and young people, regardless of their sexual orientation, experienced homophobic bullying, name calling or harassment in their schools; secondary school teachers said that homophobic bullying was the second most frequent form of childrens literature essays bullying after bullying because of weight and was three times more prevalent than bullying due to religion or ethnicity; 95 per entrance essay cent of childrens literature essays secondary school teachers and three quarters of primary school teachers reported hearing the phrases 'you're so gay' or 'that's so gay' in their schools; eight in ten secondary school teachers and two in five primary school teachers reported hearing other insulting homophobic remarks such as 'poof', 'dyke', 'queer' and 'faggot'; nine in ten teachers and essay, non-teaching staff at secondary and childrens literature essays, primary schools had never received any specific training on how to prevent or respond to homophobic bullying; more than a quarter of secondary school staff said they would not feel confident in supporting a pupil who decided to resume header, come out to them as lesbian, gay or bisexual; and half of secondary school teachers who were aware of homophobic bullying in their schools said the vast majority of incidents went unreported. Download Homophobic bullying in childrens, Britain's schools from the Stonewall website.

In 2007 Ofsted's annual report warned that social, economic and racial factors still determined how well children performed at school ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). A report by Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin for the Sutton Trust, Recent Changes in Intergenerational Mobility in Britain , published in December 2007, showed that by the age of seven the most able children in Britain's poorest homes were outperformed by the least gifted children from what of writing an expository wealthy homes. It concluded that social class was still the biggest predictor of school achievement, the likelihood of getting a degree and even a child's behaviour; and suggested that the essays, advantages of master thesis being born in a privileged home had not changed in thirty years. Research conducted at literature, Bath University by Harry Daniels and Jill Porter for the Cambridge Primary Review showed that a child's chances of receiving extra help for a special educational need was dictated by are the steps an expository essay geography, class, race and childrens literature essays, gender, rather than the nature of the learning difficulty. Middle class children received better support more quickly, and powerful lobby groups, such as those for dyslexia and autism, received disproportionate levels of essay funding. The system of 'statementing' children and allocating resources allowed for wide variations ( The Guardian 14 December 2007). A government-backed study by Dr Steve Strand at literature, Warwick University found that white working-class teenagers performed worse than their black and resume header, Asian classmates in GCSE exams ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Thursday's Child , a report by the Institute for childrens, Public Policy Research (IPPR), a think-tank close to writing college essay, the government, recommended that the long summer holiday should be shortened. It said children from the poorest backgrounds suffered most from childrens essays 'summer learning loss' and paper research, that youth offending rose during the summer when children had less access to structured activities ( The Observer 25 May 2008).

A study on childrens literature essays, social mobility, funded by the American Carnegie Corporation and presented at intelligent papers, a private conference in New York hosted by the Sutton Trust, was attended by leading UK education figures and literature essays, politicians including Cabinet Office minister Ed Miliband. The research used data from 10,000 children in college essay, the US and 19,000 children in the UK born in 2000 and childrens literature essays, 2001. It found that children's vocabulary, cognitive abilities and behaviour were closely linked to of mccarthyism essay, family income, with children from the poorest homes much less well equipped to deal with starting school. The effects of being from a low-income home were more pronounced in literature, the UK than the US because of the UK's wider difference in incomes ( The Guardian 7 June 2008). Meanwhile, politicians traded statistics. A Tory party publication, A Failed Generation , claimed that the education gap between rich and poor had widened under Labour. Thesis Proposal? Schools minister Jim Knight presented an alternative analysis of the childrens essays, achievement gap which showed it had narrowed since 1997 ( The Guardian 8 August 2008). A report published by intelligent research papers the Cabinet Office's strategy unit, Getting On, Getting Ahead , suggested that initiatives introduced over the past ten years - predominantly in early years and childrens literature essays, primary education - were beginning to pay off. Family background, it said, was now less important to thin research, the academic success of 15 year olds than it had been for childrens literature essays, the same age group born in college, 1970.

In particular, Bangladeshi pupils had risen from being the lowest performers to being above average. Tory shadow work and pensions secretary Chris Grayling dismissed the report. 'This has all the hallmarks of a government propaganda exercise', he said. 'The reality in essays, Britain today is that we have some of the college, lowest social mobility in the industrialised world.' Writing in The Guardian , John Crace argued that 'the truth lies between the two': There have been significant improvements in raising attainment levels in some areas, particularly among minority ethnic groups, but one large section of the population has missed out on the decade of rising standards - the white working class. (Crace 2008) He noted the findings of a report commissioned by the NUT and literature essays, the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) and written by of mccarthyism essay Denis Mongon and Chris Chapman at Manchester University's school of education. Successful Leadership for Promoting the Achievement of childrens literature White Working Class Pupils argued that the cycle of intelligent transport research underachievement had been endemic in this group since mass education was introduced in Victorian times. Mongon said: After more than a century of free, compulsory education and sixty years of the welfare state, family income and status are by far the most significant correlates of success in the school system. Although gender is literature essays also an rise, independent and significant factor, the social class attainment gap at 16 is three times as wide as the gender gap. Literature Essays? (quoted in college essay, Crace 2008) The government's aim to close the social gap in exam results was certainly proving difficult to achieve. In 2008, just 16 per cent of childrens literature white boys on writing essay, free school meals reached the target of five good GCSEs including English and maths, compared with the national average of 48 per cent ( The Guardian 12 December 2008). Figures released in parliament showed that a million children living below the poverty line were not receiving free school meals because the income threshold to childrens literature, qualify was lower than the current level used to define poverty. Papers? A family of two adults and two children with an income of £18,000 a year had to pay for school dinners at an average cost of £1.70 a day per child. Liberal Democrat education spokesman David Laws said: 'For the most disadvantaged children, a school dinner can be the only hot meal they get.

As times get tough, paying for school lunches is going to be a real struggle for more and more families' ( The Guardian 16 December 2008). Since 1988, parents in England had had the right to express a school preference. Successive governments believed this would force under-performing schools to improve. But in Parental choice of primary school in England: What type of literature essays schools do parents choose? , academics at Bristol University and ULIE argued that parental choice had fuelled class segregation ( The Guardian 20 November 2009). Rose Hill Primary School in Oxford abandoned its policy of thesis using only halal meat in its school meals after complaints from parents ( The Oxford Times 20 February 2008). A survey by the School Food Trust, set up by ministers in childrens, 2005 to encourage children to eat healthier food, found that secondary schools had, on average, 23 fast-food outlets within a mile of their buildings.

The Trust suggested that, to prevent pupils from buying junk food, schools should not allow them to thesis proposal, leave the premises at lunchtime. School leaders said the childrens literature essays, proposal was unworkable ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Health secretary Alan Johnson announced plans for a £20m pilot scheme to provide every child with free school meals in two local authorities. If the are the an expository essay, two-year trial improved health, school standards, pupils' behaviour and take-up of school meals, it could be expanded to every local authority, he said ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). Catering firms belonging to childrens, the Local Authority Caterers Association warned the government that new rules on schools meals due to come into force in secondary schools in September 2009 would lead to even more pupils deserting canteens for what are the of writing essay, fast-food outlets and could make the essays, school meals service no longer viable ( The Guardian 23 March 2009). Five years after the outcry over 'Turkey Twizzlers', led by TV chef Jamie Oliver, the resume header, Food for Life Partnership warned that progress towards healthier school meals would stall if budgets for childrens literature, ingredients were cut ( The Guardian 15 December 2009). The global recession, which began in 2008, forced governments around the world to review their spending.

Britain was no exception. In a sign of things to come, Ed Balls urged schools to of mccarthyism essay, save £750m a year by turning off lights, cutting back on heating and sharing cleaners. Savings needed to be made now, he said, to safeguard front-line services in the future ( The Guardian 26 November 2009). The message was reiterated three months later at a conference run by the NCSL, only childrens this time heads were asked to make 'efficiency' savings of £1bn without reducing front-line staff. The government was promising a 0.7 per cent real-terms increase in funding for schools, but because of a rise in pupil numbers, a further 0.9 per cent would be needed to maintain the status quo. Resume Header? NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said it would be difficult for heads to find £1bn without threatening front-line staff: teaching assistants could be particularly vulnerable ( The Observer 7 February 2010). In October 2007 the government published new guidelines on school uniforms. Childrens Literature? Schools minister Jim Knight said: I strongly support school uniforms and would like all schools to adopt them. They can instil pride and unity, support a strong school ethos and sample thesis proposal, prevent the jealousy, rivalry and literature, conflict that can arise when children wear different clothes.

But the cost of steps of writing an expository uniforms must never be a barrier for poorer families. ( The Guardian 5 October 2007) The only dedicated university course for Steiner school teachers had struggled to recruit new students since the literature essays, government cut funding for second degrees. In November 2009 Plymouth University announced it would not be admitting any more students to intelligent transport papers, the three-year course ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). Within a week of becoming prime minister in 2007 Gordon Brown had surprised universities by promising to increase the number of students eligible for childrens literature, grants. The pledge had been welcomed by students as a sign that the new prime minister was serious about Labour's target of are the getting half of young people into university by essays 2010. But by December 2008 ministers had been forced to introduce a cap on places after discovering a £200m black hole in their finances. This meant that for autumn 2009 there would be 3,000 extra full-time university places - the largest number in history, but not enough to transport research, keep up with the surge in demand ( The Guardian 20 August 2009). In November 2009 Lord Mandelson (whose Department of childrens literature Business, Innovation and what steps essay, Skills had assumed responsibility for higher education in June) launched A New Framework for Higher Education which set out a ten to childrens, fifteen year strategy for universities, designed to aid the country's economic recovery and pave the way for an overhaul of student tuition fees. Its key points were: a 'consumer revolution' to master, give students more information about courses and future earnings potential; a drive to childrens literature essays, make universities work more closely with industry in designing courses and resume header, funding them; and a new focus on universities as engines of social mobility, encouraging the use of 'contextual data' in selection processes to identify hidden talent among pupils from low-performing schools. ( The Guardian 3 November 2009) The election campaign.

In the childrens essays, summer of 2009 the essay, date of the forthcoming general election had not yet been announced but most commentators assumed (rightly) that it would be in May 2010. Literature? As far as education was concerned, however, the first skirmishes in the battle were already under way. The Centre for Policy Studies, a right-wing think-tank, recommended that a Conservative government should abolish at least eight quangos, including the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, the exams regulator Ofqual, the master, Training and childrens, Development Agency for Schools and the National College for School Leadership. Ofsted should remain, but would be limited to inspecting only schools seriously below the standard expected of them ( The Guardian 13 August 2009; BBC News 13 August 2009). Shadow schools secretary Michael Gove announced that he would build technical schools in every city to train a new generation of builders, technicians and paper thin, engineers - a plan developed by former Conservative education secretary Lord (Kenneth) Baker.

Labour pointed out that it was already doing just that: the DCSF had approved a technical school in Birmingham, to be sponsored by childrens essays Aston University, and had provided officials to work with Baker on expanding the scheme ( The Guardian 5 October 2009). Gove's view of education. Gove's technical schools policy was a throwback to the 1950s, but there was worse to come. He upset the teaching unions - and writing essay, just about everybody else involved in education - by promising to destroy the literature, 'educational establishment' he claimed was responsible for 'dumbing down' schools. Master Proposal? He told the Conservative Party conference that he would sideline local authorities, scrap the curriculum agency, sack the worst head teachers, have fewer Ofsted inspections for good schools, encourage competitive sports, and insist on traditional values in the classroom, with former soldiers imposing discipline and pupils expected to wear ties. The state monopoly over literature essays schools would be abolished by allowing every school the resume header, chance to become an independent academy with greater control over the curriculum, the pay of teachers and essays, the organisation of the school day ( The Guardian 7 October 2009).

The following day, Tory leader David Cameron backed Gove's plans and sample master thesis, added that a Conservative government would encourage companies to essays, run state schools for profit, and promote 'discipline, setting by ability and regular sport' ( The Guardian 8 October 2009). Gove's accusation that a culture of 'defeatism and rise, political correctness' had dumbed down education cost him support throughout England's schools. In a letter to The Guardian , the head of the ASCL and 26 leading head teachers wrote: As leaders of state secondary schools, and therefore presumably fully paid-up members of the 'educational establishment' to which Michael Gove referred in his speech to childrens literature, the Conservative party conference, we would like to challenge the image of the state education sector portrayed in that speech. 'Faddy ideologies' have been resisted by schools. Computer? Recent years have seen a strong focus on literature essays, raising the quality of teaching and intelligent transport research, learning, increasing the number of young people who achieve well, improving their behaviour and broadening their opportunities and life chances. This is what we understand as progressive education, in contrast to the pejorative way in which that term is sometimes used. ( The Guardian 12 October 2009) John White, emeritus professor of the philosophy of education at ULIE, took Gove to task over the curriculum proposals in the Tory draft education manifesto. Writing in the TES he said: 'For him, there is childrens only one vehicle to intelligent research papers, get us to these destinations: the traditional school subject. He sets his face against everything else. Cross-curricular teaching is out. Childrens Literature Essays? Projects and themes are anathemas.' Under a Tory government, there would be no regrouping of intelligent transport papers subjects into wider 'areas of learning' as recommended in the Rose review of the primary curriculum. Subjects like maths, science and history were the only way forward. Childrens Literature Essays? 'It's a pity that the schooling on which Mr Gove so dotes did not free him from the fetters of black-and-white thinking', White argued.

And he concluded: Since 1997 we have broken away from the rigidities of Ken Baker's original national curriculum. Not fast enough for many of us, perhaps, but in the right direction. Mr Gove would wind the clock back to the 1988 curriculum, itself a virtual copy of the curriculum for the new state secondary schools introduced in resume header, 1904. Childrens Literature Essays? This is conservatism indeed.

But is this creation of a horse-drawn, narrowly franchised, imperial age the beacon we should be following a century and sample master thesis, more later? (White 2010) Professor Michael Bassey was equally dismissive of Gove's view of education. Essays? In a letter to The Guardian (30 March 2010) he noted that Gove wanted to see children 'sitting in rows and rote learning'. Gove had told one newspaper that 'the best training of the mind' would be 'learning the kings and queens of England, the great works of literature, proper mental arithmetic, algebra by thin computer research the age of 11, modern foreign languages'. Yet he'd also said that 'A Conservative government would . free teachers and leaders in schools from bureaucracy to give them more space to innovate, to excel, and by excelling, to inspire others.' Bassey commented: 'The freedom that the Conservatives offer seems to be the freedom to childrens essays, spend the next ten years teaching the chronology of the monarchy to children sitting in straight lines'. Meanwhile, David Cameron accused 'failing' schools of sample proposal pandering to a culture of defeatism and 'dumbing down to the lowest common denominator'. He said a Tory government would sack the heads of the childrens literature essays, worst-performing schools within a hundred days ( The Guardian 25 April 2010). Gove's other big idea was to establish up to 2,000 Swedish-style 'free schools' - independent schools run by writing entrance essay or for childrens essays, parents but paid for by the state. He had first proposed these in September 2008. 'We have seen the future in transport, Sweden and it works', he declared. 'Standards have been driven up. If it can work there, it can work here.' He had gone on literature, to make the transport, policy a key feature of the Tory election campaign, but it was widely criticised.

Per Thulberg, director general of the childrens literature, Swedish National Agency for Education, said the free schools had 'not led to better results' in Sweden. He told the computer research, BBC's Newsnight programme that where the free schools had improved results, it was because the pupils they admitted had 'better backgrounds' than those who attended the schools they had replaced. Furthermore, recent international studies had shown that England was ranked higher than Sweden for pupils' maths and childrens literature, science knowledge and in the 2007 Trends in college entrance essay, International Mathematics and Science Study Sweden's ranking for science had fallen further than any other country's ( The Guardian 9 February 2010). Stephen Ball, professor of the sociology of education at ULIE, said Tory plans for more academies and free schools amounted to the breaking up of the model of literature essays state education which had operated in England since 1902: It's a process of the dissolution of state schooling. Resume Header? It was Labour that introduced legislation under which people could set up their own schools. This is taking it a step further and opening it up to more diverse providers being able to childrens literature, set up schools.

This is the beginning of the end of intelligent research state schools as we know them. ( The Guardian 2 March 2010) Two local authority leaders joined in literature, the criticism. Kent County Council leader Paul Carter said giving parents and other groups the funds to start free schools would threaten local education budgets, and Hampshire's cabinet member responsible for entrance essay, schools, David Kirk, insisted that local authorities should be allowed to improve existing schools rather than being forced to give parents the childrens literature essays, power to set up new ones. Leading education lawyer Graham Burns, who was acting for three parent groups trying to set up schools in anticipation of a Conservative administration, told The Guardian that parents from paper thin computer from poor neighbourhoods would be unable to set up their own schools because they lacked money and influential friends ( The Guardian 26 April 2010). And finally, just four days before the election, it was revealed that one of the first state schools to take on a private partner had had to be 'rescued' by childrens its local council after it was deemed inadequate by inspectors. This was an embarrassment for Gove because Kings International College, run by 3Es Enterprises, was in his Camberley constituency and because it highlighted potential problems with his free schools plan.

Local Liberal Democrat councillor David Whitcroft commented: 'Michael Gove has been talking about paper thin what is going on in Sweden; it might be more useful if he looked at essays, what is going on in his own constituency' ( The Observer 2 May 2010). Determined to show that he could come up with equally loony ideas, Gordon Brown announced that parents would be allowed to vote on whether to get rid of the leadership of their child's school and have it converted into paper thin research an academy run by a university, a business or another state school. These 'sponsors' - the first to be named was carpet shop owner Lord Harris - would be allowed to run chains of literature essays poorly performing primary schools. Teachers dismissed the idea as 'an impractical and unworkable election gimmick' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). As the general election approached, Robin Alexander noted that there was 'a great deal of college entrance essay unfinished business' in relation to literature essays, primary education: The Rose proposals for the primary curriculum have disappeared in of mccarthyism essay, the pre-election legislative wash-up, leaving schools confused and childrens literature, frustrated. The long-running SATs conflict is heading for its high noon. Rumblings continue about inspection. The national strategies have come and thin computer, are about to go, leaving an uncertain legacy. A growing appetite for childrens literature essays, genuine and are the steps of writing, lasting reform competes with teachers' understandable longing for a period of stability after 13 years of constant change. (Alexander 2010) With the Labour government having rejected the recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review, and the Tories highly unlikely to adopt them, he appealed directly to teachers to take forward the Review's agenda and announced the launch of a network supporting those who were keen to build on the report 'and in many cases have begun to essays, do so': Many of the priorities we nominate will be advanced only if teachers, and the communities they serve, seize the opportunity and the evidence provided by initiatives such as the Cambridge Primary Review, and use them to debate the computer research, central educational questions which too often go by default: what primary education is childrens for; what constitutes an enabling and balanced curriculum; how research on learning and teaching can be translated into classroom practice that fully engages every child; in what kinds of decisions about their lives and computer, learning young children can or should be involved; how educational quality and childrens essays, standards should be defined and assessed; and how - individually and in partnership - schools should be organised. Steps Of Writing An Expository? (Alexander 2010)

The general election was held on literature, Thursday 6 May 2010. There was no overall winner, and after several days of anxious negotiations between the parties, Gordon Brown resigned on 11 May and the Queen invited David Cameron to form a coalition government of Tories and Liberal Democrats. For an analysis of the party manifestos and the policies of the new coalition government, see my article Hobson's Choice: education policies in the 2010 general election (2010). Summary of the period. What are we to make of education in England under Ed Balls? It's a very mixed picture.

On the rise of mccarthyism essay, positive side, he is to be commended for childrens essays, his undoubted commitment to improving the lot of the nation's children, particularly those from writing college poorer families. The Children's Plan was, as we have seen, an ambitious attempt to take a holistic view of the lives and prospects of children and to bring some much-needed coherence to policy-making by drawing together all the government departments and agencies which impinged upon them. This approach was refreshingly new. He was very opposed to selection for childrens, secondary education and took steps to prevent schools - especially faith schools - from covertly selecting pupils from more affluent backgrounds. He was also determined to what are the steps essay, crack down on literature essays, homophobic bullying in schools. On the negative side, it is to be regretted that he was so adamantly committed to resume header, maintaining the indefensible testing and league tables regime in England's schools, in the face of widespread hostility from parents, teachers and childrens, governors, and despite clear evidence of the damage it was causing, not least to the children themselves. It is also regrettable that he was content to ignore the wishes of parents and teachers by continuing to increase the master thesis proposal, number of literature essays academies and trust schools, and resume header, that, despite his obvious concerns about faith schools, he was apparently happy to literature, see their numbers grow too. His decision to force faith schools to teach sex education properly was welcome. His capitulation in intelligent transport papers, the face of religious lobbying was not. And finally, like many politicians he talked much about returning decision-making to schools and childrens essays, local communities. So it's odd that he still insisted on, for research, example, compelling schools to use a particular method of teaching reading - 'synthetic phonics' - against the advice of the world's experts in the teaching of childrens literature reading.

But then politicians - of whatever party - never allow the evidence to cloud their judgement. Alexander RJ (ed) (2009b) Children, their World, their Education Final Report and Recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review London: Routledge. Crace J (2008) 'Long division' The Guardian 11 November. CSFC (2009) National Curriculum: Fourth Report of Session 2008-09 Volume 1 HC 344-I House of Commons Children Schools and Families Committee London: TSO. DCSF (2007) The Children's Plan Building brighter futures Cm 7280 London: HMSO.

DCSF (2009b) Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned A review of behaviour standards and are the essay, practices in our schools Nottingham: DCSF. Mansell W (2009a) 'Big brothers' The Guardian 2 June. Wilby P (2008) 'Jim'll fix it' The Guardian 5 August.

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5 Secrets for Landing a Job in Art Education. One of the literature, most commonly asked questions I get from readers involves getting a job in the art education field. With the jobs being few and far between, and the economy down, finding a job as an art teacher can be increasingly difficult. It doesn#8217;t help that there are only a few or one art teachers in each building! Here are some secrets to upping your chances of landing that perfect art ed job. Marketing yourself is resume header, about taking what you do best, and childrens literature essays making it visible to the world. Think about what do you do that is different. I want you to think of master thesis proposal one of literature two things you do really really well within the field that are very specific. This might be advocating to parents, adapting lessons for sample, special needs students, or a ceramics program you took from the ground up in your past school. Highlighting these wonderful things can set you apart from the crowd and make you different then the average candidate.

Do some research on essays, personal branding. In a world were everyone blends together, you must brand yourself as the expert in are the steps an expository, SOMETHING in order to stand out. I remember when we hired a new teacher at literature our school and everyone was buzzing about this new teacher- supposedly she was a whiz at differentiation and resume header everyone was anxious to see her in action. How did she get this title? She marketed herself as an expert in childrens, this area. It happened to be appealing to the selection committee and she got the job! Before you get the interview, the only way the selection committee will know about you is through your cover letter and resume. The cover letter, in thesis proposal, my eyes, is equally as important as your resume. The way the childrens literature essays, cover letter is essay, written is absolutely huge.

This is the chance to get away from the generalized stuff about passion for kids, blah blah blah and talk about something exciting and unique. (See above) This is the chance to talk about your one thing that you do really well. Don#8217;t go into too much detail, you can do that once you land the childrens literature essays, interview, however if the letter is too generalized it will go to the bottom of the pile for sure. This is the only chance you get for potential employers to transport research papers hear your voice. Childrens Essays. Be bold and be the of writing essay, authority on something. Childrens Essays. They will take note.

The look of your resume is huge. Resume Header. What will set it apart? I was disappointed to hear that most career centers at colleges frown upon anything with bells and whistles. They want you to use white paper, black font, Times New Roman, etc. Now, I think some resumes can look tacky with too much frill, however, what if you did something tasteful, professional but different enough to help you stand out from the crowd? Fonts, color schemes, content organization, white space, headings, and childrens literature consistency is essay, absolutely huge to stand out with a resume. Literature Essays. I like to use the intelligent transport research, same color schemes, fonts and logos on both my cover letter and resume for consistency.

This is another step in branding yourself. I helped my neighbor with her resume and cover letter she got 2 interviews that week and literature it wasn#8217;t even in education. I was also told by an expository essay, an HR rep they planned on re-doing their own resume to match mine. I used the program on a Mac called Pages to make my resume. There are so many new creative resume platforms out there with graphics, visuals, and childrens even CSS codes to capture a video of yourself for the committee to what are the steps an expository link to. Why not try it? Don#8217;t you think HR people are bored out of their minds? Give them something to remember. It might just land you the job. Would you want to look at black and childrens literature white Times New Roman all day? I didn#8217;t think so!

Inspiration Feed recently released an article called #8220;30 Amazingly Creative Examples of sample master thesis proposal Designer Resumes.#8221; Some of these are a little over the top, but I do encourage you to think of taking aspects from one of these and incorporating them into your otherwise boring resume. Childrens Literature. Here are some of my favorites and what I would grab from them to may my resume better if I was you! The pie chart on the right is a nice visual way to are the steps of writing break down a skills set you have. Although this resume is very causal and I wouldn#8217;t recommend talking about beer like he does (ha) I really like the timeline on childrens essays, the right side as a way to chronicle things you have done, such as presentations at conferences, exhibited in an art show or won an award. I love the organic nature of this resume. The #8220;roads#8221; will lead the potential employer to rise of mccarthyism the different paths you have created for yourself, while still maintaining a professional look. The head is a little creepy here, however, the labeling nature of the content really helps to essays organize this individual#8217;s skills in a way that is much easier to read then a long run on college essay, paragraph, don#8217;t you agree? In education, we typically write a Curriculum Vitae, which is essays, a bit longer than a resume and showcases many different types of publications, research and conferences the educator may have participated in. This is resume header, what I have- A Vitae- I like the literature, way this individual above used icons to draw our eye like bullet points to his information. See how he includes his online social networks using icons as well as icons that represent his different skill sets. I think employers would love to see a visual person like an art teacher come to resume header the table with a 21st century, modern and visual resume.

Unfortunately sometimes getting a job is hard, and it#8217;s politics. Childrens Literature. I have noticed that if someone subs quite a bit in our school and the principal gets to know them (or student taught) they seem to have a better chance of landing a job at that school. Have you thought of volunteering in a district you are looking to get into? Name recognition is huge. Intelligent. Maybe know someone who can put in a good word for you?Do you have social networks via Linked In, Twitter, a website or blog? (Don#8217;t forget to link these on your resume!). After making great connections, ask some influential people you have met to do a short testimonial for you, and childrens literature include it in your cover letter or resume. Sometimes name dropping is all it takes, and it#8217;s much more personalized to include a testimonial than to simply add a boring list of references.

We are art teachers, right? We are visual people, and potential employers will expect us to be able to SHOW some great examples of what our students have done. If you don#8217;t have a visual place online such as a blog, Artsonia, or a class webpage you can showcase student art, you are missing the boat. Transport. Be sure to link to this place in your resume or cover letter. Administrators don#8217;t know a lot about teaching art, but they know what they like when they see it. Show them your best work and make it easy for them to find. They will begin to get a clear picture of what you will offer their program and literature essays what the halls in THEIR school might look like with you as the entrance, art teacher. The philosophy I have come up with for getting a job in art education is simple: Be different, but be professional.

Showcase your strengths in a visual way. Stand out from the crowd. Jessica Balsley is the Founder and President at AOE. She is passionate about childrens literature essays helping art teachers enhance their lives and are the steps of writing careers through relevant professional development. Course Recommendations for childrens literature essays, Blossoming Art Teachers. Resume vs.

Curriculum Vitae: An Art Teacher’s Guide. The Art Teacher’s Ultimate Guide to Getting Hired. Rise Of Mccarthyism Essay. In addition to these great suggestions! As an art teacher and the art department chair I have been on many interview committies. Please dress professionally for your interview. Nice and simple and professional. It makes it easier to hear what your saying when we are not distracted. And please bring samples and photos of your students work.

Definitely show links to your blogs and other professional web sights were can see what you will bring to our program. Also find out about what we already do and have some ideas about how you can enhance our current program. All of these suggestions are very helpful. I was led to believe by the University Career Counselor that my resume had to be the traditional #8220;12point Times New Roman#8221; and have a very sterile look. I have since revamped my resume/cover letter, using my talents and background in literature, graphic design, to create these items that more represent me artistically yet keeping a very professional appearance. I liked Maggie#8217;s response also as it relates to actual interviewing. The comment above is research papers, mine also (I forgot to log in!). Also, as I go into any future interviews I will also put my bookbinding skills to childrens literature essays use and create a small scrapbook of intelligent student artwork. I will print off photos of some of my students#8217; work to essays place in college entrance, the scrapbook. The scrapbook will also be nice to have as a keepsake. I will showcase outstanding student work as well as work from students that proved a little more challenging.

One of my own strengths as a teacher is being able to create personal connections with students, especially students who are rather challenging (ADHD/ADD, students who feel they have no art talent, etc.) Featuring artwork from childrens literature some of these students, artwork that met the objectives of my lesson, will be great additions to this scrapbook as well. College Essay. Not only childrens essays was this a great article, I loved the comments too! It always gives me more and college entrance essay more ideas that I can use in hopes to one day be a full time art teacher (as I am only literature essays a .1 right now) i am very curious about your color scheme . . . how do you incorporate colors into your resume? i don#8217;t have a background in graphic design, so for me the #8220;sterile#8221; 12 pt times new roman resume is the resume header, easiest thing to childrens wrap my head around. it#8217;s not that i don#8217;t find those resumes visually appealing, i just don#8217;t have a lot of thesis experience manipulating images on the computer . . Literature Essays. . Paper Computer. I use a program called Pages on my mac and can change the font colors and add some bells and whistles. I have easily learned to childrens literature essays use Pages over time, but you are right, we see ideas we like but can#8217;t always replicate them graphically. I#8217;ve had to learn from the ground up in order to do AOE stuff and blog. ah, thank you! the district i am currently in just switched us all to macs and what steps of writing an expository essay i have yet to childrens essays fully explore my new macbook#8217;s potential. i#8217;ll have to see if we have that program. thanks for everything you do :o) I have been wanting to create a resume but because I have no college education and what am a self-taught artist and art educator, I am not sure how to word my #8216;education#8217; portion. Maybe I should just leave it off. I am an art educator to the homeschool community and have a passion for literature essays, art history. I do have a blog which, I see, will be good to resume header add to the resume (www.arttogo-gsmith.blogspot.com). Thanks for essays, this and all of your other wonderful posts. I have read nearly all of them and find them very encouraging.

Your blog looks great, and you will be so happy you#8217;ve documented all of your work in one place. You could always add educational experiences you#8217;ve done on rise of mccarthyism essay, your own. Any conferences, workshops, research, etc. If anyone wants more information they will ask, otherwise just leave it off, and childrens literature essays focus on the positive- All of the resume header, amazing things you are doing. Jessica, would you mind looking over my resume? I#8217;d love some constructive criticism. I#8217;ve seen those above examples before, and I like them#8230; but I#8217;m still a little hesitant on going TOO graphic. Literature Essays. I was just on are the an expository, the interview committee for literature essays, my long term sub, and I was, of course, curious as to what my administrators thought of all the resumes that came in, so I got some insight from sample thesis that.. but I still would like an opinion on my current resume. I did add a pop of color, but I don#8217;t know how I feel about literature any other #8220;bells and writing college whistles#8221;#8230; maybe too distracting?

Anywho.. if you don#8217;t mind (and trust me, I won#8217;t be offended if you#8217;re too busy- you got a lot goin#8217; on, girl!), I#8217;d love to childrens literature hear what you think about my resume. (PS.. my resume also already #8220;matches#8221; my cover letter and portfolio.) Sure, Hannah! I#8217;d be happy to. Send it to me at: theartofed@gmail.com. I agree, even my resume isn#8217;t as wild as some of the paper thin computer research, examples. It depends on a lot of factors and the type of job you are applying for. Childrens Essays. :) Looking forward to it. Hi Jessica, would you mind reading my cover letter and resume? I could really use some help.

I am applying to two counties, both that I would love to writing entrance have a job offer in. Sure! Send it my way. Hi Jessica, would you mind looking over childrens literature essays, my cover letter? I am trying to make it pop and stand out. What Are The Steps Of Writing Essay. I have had mixed reviews from my friends and family, but would love an outsiders input. Thank you so much. Sure! Send it my way:

I am an art teacher in Massachusetts and have found a strong trend for most of the public schools to use the website School Spring. The website is great because I get daily emails letting me know what openings they are but the literature essays, website is set up so you insert all your experience and information into their format. There doesn#8217;t seem to be any way to get creative with the template, you can#8217;t even change the what are the of writing an expository essay, font! I#8217;ve tried following up my online applications with a letter that includes visuals and talks more about my teaching philosophy but got several emails back saying that they received it but do not except anything mailed to them. Childrens Literature Essays. Does anyone else use this website and found some way to individualize their profile or have any suggestions? in my humble opinion, websites like School Spring and Applitrac don#8217;t do art teachers justice.

I have submitted dozens of resume#8217;s on line, with no feed back or call back. Yet when I mail in sample master, my beautiful hard copy I always get an interview. Don#8217;t know what the childrens literature, finished product looks like on any of these sites, but it cannot beat the sample proposal, original. Maybe links to a school webpage featuring student work in the cover letter would help? If you come up with anything let me know. Literature Essays. These on-line services are frustrating! I have 15 yrs experience in graphic designing and sample proposal teaching students for childrens essays, proffesional course in fashion, digital textile printing which is in.. trd. Also have started painting with abstract art as my forte with acrylics, watercolor and pastels and charcoal. I want yo apply for a Viual Art Teacher for high school. I am confused as how to present my resume.

You#8217;ll want to focus on what of writing an expository, any work you did with students. Childrens Literature Essays. It#8217;s great to include your other credentials briefly, but school districts are primarily concerned with how you#8217;ve worked with kids in the past.

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Children's Literature essays

Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). Literature. The repertory grid was introduced and used in intelligent transport papers a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and childrens essays, compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the activity as an rise of mccarthyism essay instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the participant’s perceptions of the essays activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument. Conclusions about the of mccarthyism applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the childrens literature essays instrument used in this study in master second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development.

It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Thought and literature essays, action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25). Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and paper, modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. Literature Essays. experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. Resume Header. open to change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and literature essays, deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is resume header, linked to childrens literature essays, the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an resume header essential role in the practice of teaching and teacher education. Childrens Essays. It is rise essay, shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in literature essays dependence to computer, contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them. It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to literature essays, be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and transport research, assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to childrens, articulate them (Donaghue, 2003).

Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of college entrance, espoused theories which are in contrast to essays, theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs.

Donaghue (2003) has introduced an paper adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and childrens literature, articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of of writing essay, personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the literature world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). Rise Of Mccarthyism Essay. For example, an literature essays effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31).

Accordingly, in essay the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to literature essays, compare three different people and to affirm a construct in rise which two persons are alike, and the third is different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and childrens, assumptions about language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to an element. Sample Thesis. For this reason, conclusion from literature essays results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to rise of mccarthyism essay, gain generalisable results. Childrens Literature. Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.

The study sought to find out how the adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the writing entrance participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an childrens literature essays indicator for evaluating in how far the instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. What Steps Of Writing. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to literature essays, developing the instrument. Following these considerations the study sought to papers, answer the literature essays following questions:

1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at a private middle school in thin a southeastern city in Turkey. Literature. The pupils attending the school come from families belonging to sample master proposal, the middle and upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years.

2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and vary in childrens teaching experience as evidenced by the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school.

Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. What Are The Of Writing An Expository. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. Childrens Essays. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the writing essay concept of personal constructs. 2. Participants are divided into pairs.

Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). Literature Essays. They think of a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the what are the steps of writing an expository name of the childrens person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the sample master thesis proposal participants are allowed to literature, write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Intelligent Research Papers. Each participant is literature essays, given a grid (Appendix A).

Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and intelligent transport, one is literature essays, different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to the one that is sample master thesis, different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and childrens essays, repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately.

The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants. Resume Header. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in essays English and thesis, audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for childrens the data analysis. During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to what of writing an expository essay, document how the participants responded to the activity. Four types of childrens literature, data were collected during the study: the transport research papers repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of this paper).

The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is literature, organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in thin research the data coming from both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to develop the childrens literature instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general?

All the participants gave positive comments on the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. Thin. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to literature, them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to thesis, the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates:

I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and childrens, you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of of writing an expository, constructs is combined with comparison of literature, three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to sample, challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in essays fact might be valuable as a quality of college, a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and again of so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the childrens essays teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in order to teach them. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of Mccarthyism. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on. But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2).

Participant 1 pointed to literature essays, a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to rise of mccarthyism essay, be criticised. As the activity helped her to childrens essays, find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on are the steps an expository, their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the childrens literature essays feeling of intelligent transport research papers, enjoyment was linked to childrens literature essays, the perception of contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an activity. I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one.

I want to resume header, be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6). What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to literature essays, any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to paper thin, what areas the childrens essays participants attributed their beliefs of thin research, their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework.

2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. The participants’ perceptions are reported in literature more detail in college essay the following sections.

Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by childrens, her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the writing entrance essay teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on childrens literature, enquiry, the participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on master thesis proposal, their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to childrens literature, their constructs in the repertory grid. Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to paper thin computer research, teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of not only content but also of method in teacher education.

In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. Literature. The participants claimed that their beliefs and are the steps, assumptions were shaped by childrens, cultural norms and writing college entrance essay, their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an childrens essays influence on sample master thesis proposal, teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only childrens essays, refer to the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the resume header responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of them is our home. That is literature essays, very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of them is our culture.

For example, we are Muslims, our culture is sample, different from that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of childrens, conditions. According to her, public school teachers do not care about research papers, their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. Essays. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in essay public schools on the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to essays, do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice.

Similar as for paper computer schooling and childrens essays, professional coursework, the resume header participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. Childrens. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on rise of mccarthyism, beliefs and childrens literature, assumptions and writing essay, consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is childrens literature, different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. Thin. So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to essays, use the elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in paper research a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in the teacher profession.

The participants mainly saw the childrens literature activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Of Mccarthyism Essay. Some of the literature suggestions to develop the resume header activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to childrens literature essays, be carried out in essay the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and childrens, weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an intelligent research papers instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the literature view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views. To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the writing activity could be utilised in the classroom:

Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the activity in childrens which the partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.

As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and rise of mccarthyism, elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is literature essays, remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of resume header, interview (cf. Childrens. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the what are the an expository essay participants’ perceptions of the essays repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through.

The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to sample master thesis, reflection about own beliefs. Childrens Literature Essays. This is in line with the rise essay participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003). It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of teachers to participate in professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and childrens essays, references while they were talking about the intelligent transport research activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is childrens essays, not surprising when the sample master proposal ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from childrens each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in sample master thesis a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point.

She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and childrens essays, label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. Master Proposal. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is literature, inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them.

There has been an paper thin research ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection. Childrens Essays. The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Resume Header. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Literature Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do.

Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. Rise. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. Literature Essays. (1993).

Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351.

Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the rise of mccarthyism essay work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13.

Gabillon, Z. (2012). Childrens Essays. Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of Language and Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. College Essay. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara.

Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching.

Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. Essays. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. Resume Header. (1998). Childrens Essays. Language teacher education. Intelligent Research Papers. New York: Arnold.

Saldana, J. Literature. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Pascal, J. (2012).

Developing critically reflective practice. Entrance. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991).

Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach. Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher.

Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation. The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information. Your responses and are the steps of writing an expository, biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for literature essays your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. ….. Of Mccarthyism Essay. Doctorate degree Other; please specify.

Number of childrens literature, years of teaching experience: ….. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and thesis, beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1.

Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own classroom experience? 2.4. Childrens Essays. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the school)? 3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at papers the beginning of a development course)

4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in childrens literature essays as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to entrance, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in essays your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to thin, elicit beliefs . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-english-language-teachers-perceptions-of-an-activity-to-elicit-beliefs/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and literature, no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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essay on nabby adams [an error occurred while processing this directive] Jim Olson's Essay on childrens essays Abigail Adams. At first she did not give it much thought, noticing it now and then when she bathed or dressed. Nor did she talk about resume header, it. Literature Essays. She was a shy, somewhat withdrawn woman, quiet and cautious in her expressions, most comfortable with people who guarded their feelings. She blushed easily and rarely laughed out loud, allowing only a demure, half-smile to crease her face when she was amused. She had a pleasant disposition and a mellow temperament, both endearing to family and writing entrance essay, friends. Nabby was a striking woman, with long, red hair, a round face, deep-blue eyes, and a creamy, porcelain complexion.

She commanded respect, not because of an essays aggressive personality but simply because of the essay, quality of childrens essays her mind and her unfailing dignity. She was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 1766. Research. Her parents named her Abigail Adams, but they began calling her Nabby when she was still an infant. Nabby had an extraordinary childhood. Childrens. Her father was John Adams, the future president of the United States, and her mother Abigail Adams, the most prominent woman in early American society.

Her younger brother John Quincy was destined to win many honors, among them the presidency of the United States. From the steps essay, time of essays her birth, Nabby's parents busied themselves with colonial politics, eventually playing leading roles in the American Revolution. They raised her on a steady diet of political talk about freedom, liberty, rights, despotism, and foreign policy. Nabby absorbed it all. An only daughter, she enjoyed the special attentions of thin research her father, who felt the need to protect and pamper her. Abigail doted on childrens her, dressing her up in the latest fashions when she was little and counseling her when she was an adolescent. Intelligent. Their relationship evolved into childrens literature, a deep friendship. Nabby took it all in stride, never becoming spoiled or self-indulgent. Paper Thin Computer Research. She was even-handed, thick-skinned, and literature, unafraid of responsibility. In 1783, when Congress appointed her father as minister to England, Nabby was seventeen-years-old. Resume Header. The family took up residence in a house on Grosvener Square in London.

Caught up in a whirlwind of literature social and political activity, they met King George III at what steps essay court and childrens literature essays, other prominent politicians at parties and banquets common to the life of an ambassador. After a few months, Nabby became acquainted with William Smith, a thirty-year-old veteran of the Continental Army and secretary to the American legation in London. A dashing, handsome figure, Smith raced around London in a two-seated carriage, the eighteenth-century equivalent to a modern sports car. Entrance. He dressed well and kept company with people in London's expatriate community, especially Latin American liberals and radicals interested in securing independence from Spain. He was bold and impetuous, inspired by courage and limited by poor judgment.

Because of his work with the U.S. legation, and his role as secretary to Minister John Adams, he saw a great deal of the Adams family, and Nabby fell secretly in love with him. Drawn to Nabby's beauty, grace, and intelligence, he soon felt the same way about her. They married in childrens essays, June 1786, after a courtship which John and Abigail Adams felt was too short. They accepted it, however, because a soldier is always more expeditious in his courtships than other men. But Colonel William Smith was a soldier without a war, a has-been at the age of thirty, and Nabby, an innocent victim of what her brother John Quincy called fortune's treacherous game, faced a difficult life. Colonel Smith was not cruel. In fact, he always loved and cared for Nabby and their three children. With a stoicism that would have made the most devout Puritan proud, she accepted her fate and made a life for her family wherever Smith settled.

The problem was that Smith never really settled down. He wasted his life away, winning and losing political appointments, dabbling in Latin American coup d'etats, dragging Nabby and the children back and forth between New York and London in search of a new power broker or another promising deal. Computer. He spent more money than he ever earned, and Nabby worried constantly about bills and the family reputation. Early in the new century, Smith tried his hand at real estate speculation, but he lost everything. In 1809, when Nabby first noticed the lump in her breast, they were living on childrens literature the edge of the frontier, on a small farm along the Chenango River in western New York, where Smith spent his days behind a walking plow and a mule.

Nabby was a well-informed woman, and breast cancer was as much a dread disease in resume header, the early 1800s as it is today. No records exist describing her initial reaction to the lump, but it is safe to say that concern about the dimple flared into gut-twisting fear. Like so many women, then and today, she tried to ignore the lump, hoping that in the busy routines of running a small farm and household she would not have time to childrens essays, think about it. But cancer has a way of asserting itself, finally obliterating even the most elaborate denials. Thin Computer Research. Nabby was no exception. The lump grew ominously, in spite of the efforts of local healers and their potions.

She wrote home to John and Abigail Adams in February 1811 that her doctor had discovered a cancer in my breast. As soon as they received the letter, the Adams wrote back urging her to come to Boston for childrens literature medical advice. In June 1811, with the sample proposal, lump visible to the naked eye, a desperate Nabby returned to essays, Massachusetts, accompanied by her husband and daughter Caroline. Resume Header. As soon as she arrived in Quincy, she wrote to Benjamin Rush, describing her condition and seeking his advice. Literature. When Abigail Adams first looked at her daughter's breast, she found the condition allarming. Resume Header. The large tumor distended the breast into a misshapen mass. Childrens Literature. John and Abigail took Nabby to see several physicians in are the steps of writing, Boston, and they were cautiously reassuring, telling her that the situation and her general health were so good as not to threaten any present danger. They prescribed hemlock pills to poison the disease. Soon after those reassuring examinations, however, the family received an unsettling reply from Benjamin Rush.

In her initial letter, Nabby told Rush that the tumor was large and growing, but that it was movable--not attached to the chest wall. Rush found the news encouraging, as would most cancer specialists today. Malignant tumors which are movable are better candidates for surgery, since it is more likely that the surgeon can get what is termed a clean margin--a border of non-cancerous tissue surrounding the childrens literature, tumor--reducing the odds that the cancer will recur or spread. Knowing that Nabby had already traveled from western New York to Boston to seek medical advice, Rush wrote to resume header, John and Abigail, telling them to break his news gently to Nabby: I shall begin my letter by replying to childrens essays, your daughter's. I prefer giving my opinion and advice in her case in intelligent transport research papers, this way.

You and childrens literature, Mrs. Adams may communicate it gradually and in such a manner as will be least apt to distress and alarm her. After the experience of thesis more than 50 years in essays, cases similar to hers, I must protest against writing college, all local applications and internal medicines for relief. They now and then cure, but in 19 cases out of 20 in tumors in the breast they do harm or suspend the disease until it passes beyond that time in which the only radical remedy is ineffectual. This remedy is the knife. From her account of the moving state of the childrens literature essays, tumor, it is computer now in a proper situation for the operation. Childrens Literature Essays. Should she wait till it suppurates or even inflames much, it may be too late. I repeat again, let there be no delay in flying to the knife.

Her time of life calls for expedition in this business. I sincerely sympathize with her and with you and your dear Mrs. Adams in this family affliction, but it will be but for a few minutes if she submits to have it extirpated, and if not, it will probably be a source of distress and pain to you all for years to come. It shocks me to think of the consequences of procrastination. Mastectomy was Nabby's only chance, but first the family had to convince William Smith, who was in master thesis proposal, an advanced state of literature denial. When he learned of Rush's recommendation, he reacted indignantly, heading for research libraries to learn whatever he could about the disease and hoping to spare her the operation. He convinced himself for childrens essays a while that perhaps the tumor would just go away, that it was not so bad. Nabby's mother had more faith in Rush and wrote to Smith: If the operation is necessary as the Dr. states it to be, and intelligent transport papers, as I fear it is, the sooner it is done the better provided Mrs. Smith can bring herself along, as I hope she will consent to it. She even asked her son-in-law to be with Nabby through the painful tryal.

Smith finally agreed. They scheduled the operation for October 8, 1811. The day before the surgery, John Warren, Boston's most skilled surgeon, met with the family in Quincy. He gave Nabby a brief physical examination and told her what to expect. His description was nightmarishly terrifying, enough to make everybody reconsider the decision. But Rush's warning--It shocks me to think of the consequences of procrastination in literature essays, her case--stuck in their minds.

Nabby had no choice if she ever hoped to live to see her grandchildren. The surgery took place in an upstairs bedroom of the Adams home in Quincy, Massachusetts. Resume Header. It was as bad as they had all feared. John Warren was assisted by his son Joseph, who was destined to become a leading physician in his own right, and several other physicians. Exact details of the operation are not available, but it was certainly typical of early nineteenth surgery. Warren's surgical instruments, lying in a wooden box on a table, were quite simple--a large fork with two, six-inch prongs sharpened to a needle point, a wooden-handled razor, and a pile of compress bandages.

In the childrens, corner of the room a small oven, full of transport research papers red-hot coals, heated a flat, thick, heavy iron spatula. Nabby entered into literature essays, the room as if dressed for of mccarthyism a Sunday service. She was a proper woman and acted the part. The doctors were professionally attired in literature, frock coats, with shirts and ties. Modesty demanded that Nabby unbutton only the paper, top of her dress and slip it off her left shoulder, exposing the diseased breast but little else.

She remained fully clothed. Since they knew nothing of bacteria in the early 1800s, there were no gloves or surgical masks, no need for Warren to scrub his hands or disinfect Nabby's chest before the operation or cover his own hair. Warren had her sit down and lean back in a reclining chair. Childrens Essays. He belted her waist, legs, feet, and right arm to the chair and writing college essay, had her raise her left arm above her head so that the pectoralis major muscle would push the breast up. Childrens Literature Essays. A physician took Nabby's raised arm by the elbow and held it, while another stood behind her, pressing her shoulders and neck to the chair. Warren then straddled Nabby's knees, leaned over her semi-reclined body, and went to work. He took the two-pronged fork and thrust it deep into the breast. With his left hand, he held onto master, the fork and raised up on it, lifting the breast from the chest wall. He reached over for the large razor and childrens literature, started slicing into the base of the breast, moving from the middle of her chest toward her left side. What Are The Steps Of Writing. When the breast was completely severed, Warren lifted it away from Nabby's chest with the fork.

But the tumor was larger and more widespread then he had anticipated. Hard knots of tumor could be felt in the lymph nodes under her left arm. He razored in there as well and pulled out nodes and tumor. Nabby grimaced and groaned, flinching and essays, twisting in the chair, with blood staining her dress and Warren's shirt and pants. Her hair matted in thesis, sweat. Abigail, William, and Caroline turned away from the gruesome struggle. To stop the bleeding, Warren pulled a red-hot spatula from the literature, oven and applied it several times to the wound, cauterizing the paper thin computer, worst bleeding points. With each touch, steamy wisps of smoke hissed into the air and filled the room with the distinct smell of childrens burning flesh.

Warren then sutured the wounds, bandaged them, stepped back from Nabby, and mercifully told her that it was over. The whole procedure had taken less than twenty-five minutes, but it took more than an hour to dress the resume header, wounds. Abigail and literature, Caroline then went to the surgical chair and helped Nabby pull her dress back over her left shoulder as modesty demanded. The four surgeons remained astonished that she had endured pain so stoically. Nabby endured a long recovery. She did not suffer from post-surgical infections, but for months after the operation she was weak and paper computer research, feeble, barely able to literature essays, get around. Transport. She kept her limp left arm resting in a sling. Literature. Going back to the wilds of western New York was out of the question, so she stayed in steps of writing, Quincy with her mother, hoping to regain strength.

What sustained all of them during the ordeal was the childrens literature essays, faith that the operation had cured the cancer. Within two weeks of the surgery, Dr. Rush wrote John Adams congratulating him in the happy issue of the operation performed upon Mrs. Rise. Smith's breast. her cure will be radical and durable. I consider her as rescued from childrens, a premature grave.

Abigail wrote to a friend that although the operation had been a furnace of affliction. what a blessing it was to have extirpated so terrible an enemy. Of Mccarthyism Essay. In May 1812, seven months after the surgery, Nabby Smith felt well again. She returned home to the small farm along the Chenango River. But she was not cured. Breast cancer patients whose tumors have already spread to the lymph nodes do not have good survival rates, even with modern surgery, radiation treatments, and literature, chemotherapy. Of Mccarthyism Essay. In Nabby's case, long before Warren performed the mastectomy, the cancer had already spread.

Nabby suspected something was wrong within a few weeks of arriving home in New York. She began to complain of headaches and essays, pain in her spine and rise, abdomen. A local physician attributed the discomfort to rheumatism. Childrens Literature. The diagnosis relieved some of her anxiety, since she was already worried that the pain had something to do with cancer. But it was not the rhemuatism. That became quite clear in 1813 when she suffered a local recurrence of the intelligent, tumors. When Warren amputated her breast and excised tissues from childrens literature, her axilla, he thought he had gotten it all. Sample Master Thesis. But cancer is a cellular disease, and millions of invisible, microscopically-tiny malignant cancers were left behind. By the spring of 1813 some of them had grown into tumors of their own--visible in childrens literature, the scar where Nabby's breast had once been and on intelligent transport papers the skin as well. Her doctor in New York changed the diagnosis: the headaches and now excruciating body pains were not rheumatism.

The cancer was back--everywhere. She declined steadily in childrens literature essays, the late spring, finally telling her husband that she wanted to die in her father's house. Resume Header. William Smith wrote John and Abigail in May that the cancer had returned and that Nabby wanted to spend her state of literature essays convalescence within the rise essay, vortex of your kindness and assiduities than elsewhere. The colonel was back in denial. Since the country was in essays, the midst of the transport papers, War of 1812, he told his in-laws he had to literature essays, go to sample master proposal, Washington, D.C. for a military appointment, and literature essays, that he would return to Quincy as soon as Congress adjourned. John and Abigail prepared Nabby's room and waited for her arrival.

The trip was unimaginably painful--more than three hundred miles in a carriage, over bumpy roads where each jolt stabbed into her. Nabby's son John drove the carriage. When they finally reached Quincy on rise of mccarthyism July 26, she was suffering from grinding, constant pain. Her appearance shocked John and Abigail. She was gaunt and thin, wracked by a deep cough, and her eyes had a moist, rheumy look. She groaned and sometimes screamed with every movement. Huge, dark circles shadowed her cheeks, and a few minutes after she settled into bed, the smell of death fouled the air. Nabby's pain was so unbearable, and misery so unmitigated, that Abigail slipped into a depression so deep she could not stand even to childrens literature essays, visit her room. It was John Adams who ministered to their dying daughter, feeding her, cleaning her and seeing to her personal needs, combing her hair and holding her hand. He tried to resume header, administer pain killers, but nothing seemed to help. Smith returned from Washington, and the deathwatch commenced.

On August 9, Nabby's breathing became shallow and the passage of time between breaths lengthened. The family gathered around her bedside. She drew her last breath early in the afternoon. A few days later, in a letter to childrens literature, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams wrote: Your Friend, my only Daughter, expired, Yesterday Morning in the Arms of Her Husband her Son, her Daughter, her Father and Mother, her Husbands two Sisters and two of her Nieces, in the 49th. Year of Age, 46 of which She was the healthiest and rise, firmest of Us all: Since which, She has been a monument to Suffering and to literature, Patience. Jefferson understood his friend's pain: I know the depth of the affliction it has caused, and can sympathize with it the more sensibly, inasmuch as there is no degree of affliction produced by the loss of those dear to us, while experience has not taught me to estimate. time and silence are the only medicine, and these but assuage, they never can suppress, the resume header, deep drawn sigh which recollection for ever brings up, until recollection and life are extinguished together.

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