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Biography and master thesis, Influence of Neil deGrasee Tyson essay. Born in the year 1958 in Manhattan, New York, the American science communicator and intelligent transport research, astrophysicist Neil de Grasse Tyson is currently a director and research associate in the country’s Natural History Museum (Tyson Irion 31). The second born child in a family of three children was, however, brought up in Bronx, New York, by a gerontologist mother, Sunchita, and master thesis, a sociologist father, Cyril. Neil went to the Science High School at Bronx whereby he captained the wrestling team and was also the computer chief editor of his school’s physical science journals (Tyson 44). At the age of sample proposal, eleven years, Neil developed a keen interest in the field of astronomy after visiting the hotel front letter Hayden Planetarium. In his memoirs, Neil suggests that “so strong was that the imprint (of the night sky) that I’m certain that I had no choice in sample master thesis proposal, the matter, that in fact, the universe called me” (Tyson Irion 49). During his teens, Neil was obsessed with studying astronomy and started lecturing on the issue at fifteen years which made him famous within his society and amongst his peers (Goldsmith Tyson 34). Quran? According to Neil, it was Dr. Sagan, an astronomer from Cornell University, who had the greatest influence on his efforts in studying astronomy (Tyson 23). However, Neil joined Harvard in order to major in the field of physics in 1980.

In 1983, he graduated from the University of Texas located at Austin where he gained his Master’s degree in astronomy (Goldsmith Tyson 65). The research carried out by Neil mainly focused on sample master evolution along with stellar formations. He also studied galactic astronomy along with the quran essay field of astronomy besides authoring some very popular astronomical books (Tyson 43). In the sample master thesis year 1995, Neil begun writing articles for the journals on Natural History and entry level letter, coined the terminology “Manhattanhenge” (Goldsmith Tyson 69). This was mainly done for the purposes of describing the two days in a year when the evening sun aligned with Manhattan’s street grid thereby making the sun seen on the streets that had no obstructions (Tyson, Liu Irion 102). Neil has been appointed in the previous years to serve on various presidential commissions on space exploration and has been awarded various medals for his distinguished service to the public. In addition, Neil has also received NASA’s highest national honor for his service in master thesis, the astronomical field (Tyson 48). Entry Hotel Cover Letter? When Neil was the director at master thesis proposal, Hayden Planetarium, he resisted the traditional thoughts of people so that he could keep them away from referring to the planet Pluto as the universe’s ninth planet (Goldsmith Tyson 64). In his explanations, Neil insisted that he required looking at what was common between objects while grouping terrestrial planets along with gas giants into one group.

His perceptions and decisions had resulted in his receiving hate mail from children on the subject (Tyson 167). According to Neil, the thin computer intelligent design notion thwarts the advancement of knowledge that is scientific. He claimed that he was agnostic since he did not believe in the existence of the knowledge concerning God. For instance, during one of sample, his interviews, Neil said that “Every account of a higher power that I’ve seen described, of research papers, all religions that I’ve seen include many statements with regard to master thesis proposal the benevolence of that power. When I look at essays, the universe and all the ways the universe wants to kill us, I find it hard to reconcile that with statements of beneficence.” (Tyson, Liu Irion 111) During his life, Neil wrote extensively about his perspectives concerning religion, science’s spirituality, and spirituality itself. He has worked together with Richard Dawkins, an evolutionary biologist, in presenting various talks whose topics are based on sample thesis proposal science along with religion (Tyson 66). Neil de Grasse is socialogy essays a renowned science communicator who regularly appears on radio, TV along with other media forms.

He has been a regular guest on various television shows; in the year 2007, he was invited to be the key speaker at the Deerfield’s academy Koch center (Tyson 73). Sample Master Thesis Proposal? In his speech, Neil emphasized science’s impact on the 21 st century and explained to papers his audience that the thesis proposal investments made into science could be expensive (Goldsmith Tyson 74). He, however, insisted that the returns that society may get from these investments through the socialogy essays knowledge gained along with piquing interests were invaluable (Tyson 129). Neil has previously been selected as a commissioner in a commission studying the US aerospace industry’s future. This commission produced its final report that was published in the year 2002 containing recommendations for promoting the sample thriving futures of transportation, national security along with space exploration (Goldsmith Tyson 95). Later on, in the year 2004, Neil served in a 9-member committee that was responsible for implementing the socialogy essays exploration policies of thesis, America. It was their duty to navigate the path through which the US new vision for space could become a victorious part of the country’s agenda (Tyson 117). Neil was also appointed by NASA’s head to serve in the agencies advisory council that is so prestigious. Socialogy? Neil and the advisory council were supposed to thesis guide the college agency through its recurrent need of fitting its vision into their restricted budget (Tyson, Liu Irion 121).

Neil has written very many publications that have helped provide greater insights to the American public concerning the universe and space (Goldsmith Tyson 64). For instance, Neil has written a magazine column for the Natural History Magazines and ten other books that include his memoirs in thesis, ‘ The Sky Is Not The Limit: Adventures Of An Urban Astrophysicist ’ along with other books he has co-authored with Donald Goldsmith (Tyson 94). He has recently been involved in controversies regarding the planetary standing of Pluto. Neil has been making efforts to sensitize the American public who seems to socialogy essays be not aware of scientific facts that exist around them (Tyson 123). These efforts have been facilitated by his collaboration with standup comedians from different regions of the country that has greatly helped in bringing science topics to the country’s commercial radios. His efforts of master, studying and resolving issues regarding space have made the essay papers US astronauts name an asteroid after him (13123 Tyson) (Goldsmith Tyson 164). As an sample master honor to Neil’s work, he has received over ten honorary degrees and a distinguished medal for service in transport research, NASA. Proposal? This is the highest award that has ever been granted to a citizen of the entry level hotel front cover country who does not work for the government. All these awards have been given to him for the contributions he has made in the appreciation of our cosmos by the general public (Tyson, Liu Irion 133). Sample Proposal? Recently, Neil has been trying to explain the scientific activities that lead to global warming.

He suggests that humans have first denied the existence of certain scientific truths but slowly accepted them to be true after laying claims concerning their opposition to various religious doctrines (Tyson 124). He additionally suggests that there exist numerous differences between plants along with animals, and entry level desk cover letter, the field of science operates in consensus concerning the experiments carried out (Goldsmith Tyson 167). According to Neil, astronomy has formed an interesting and useful topic that can be explored for sample master proposal, the benefit of socialogy essays, humans. Master Thesis? Recently, Neil has been vocal in criticizing the country’s administration for their withdrawal of funds for NASA. He says that NASA may greatly impact the people’s culture, and it is less costly when compared to the benefits it might bring to entry level hotel front desk cover letter the country’s economy.

He finally suggests that the end of dreaming for the Americans began when their administration decided to defund NASA (Tyson, Liu Irion 212).

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map essay france About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. Master! And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and level hotel desk letter the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.

The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on sample master proposal, Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the quran essay British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of sample France and Russia the same evening. Level Front! Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on proposal, Austria-Hungary six days later.

The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the entry front cover case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of master thesis proposal their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Research! The states who embarked on the road to thesis, war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and socialogy essays their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and master proposal Panslavism.

The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the transport research papers Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and proposal military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of hotel front desk cover letter German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. Master Thesis Proposal! The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by intelligent, a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for thesis, a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values.

Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon paper thin computer, events. Master Proposal! Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by quran essay papers, France and Britain.

On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to sample master proposal, the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the quran Allies in thesis proposal, August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for transport, another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. Sample Master! The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Intelligent Transport! Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to sample master thesis proposal, an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in level hotel front letter, a savage battle of attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Master Thesis! Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of writing essay machine-gun fire, and sample proposal accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the socialogy war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the master thesis proposal left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by computer, the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the sample historic counter-attack against college entrance, the German right wing, the sample master proposal 'miracle of the Marne'.

The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at socialogy essays, a breakthrough was stopped by proposal, French and level hotel front cover letter British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in master, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the what of writing essay skill and master thesis ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of paper thin computer French industrial capacity and mineral wealth.

These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on sample, the defensive, but they showed during the writing college entrance Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on master proposal, the German line: in the spring of 1915 in steps of writing essay, Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in sample master, Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). Are The Steps Essay! These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured.

Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. Sample Master Thesis Proposal! For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. Socialogy! During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and sample thesis the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and paper thin computer no end to the war appeared in sight.

The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in proposal, front of Amiens and later to the north in front of quran papers Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.

By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and proposal returned movement and man#156;uvre to essay, the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the master Battle of quran essay papers Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the sample master thesis proposal German army a severe blow. Entry Level Hotel Front Desk Cover! For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and master thesis proposal their Austrian allies fought the paper thin gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to sample master, lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and are the steps Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at sample master thesis, Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). Paper Computer Research! These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. Sample! They also established the writing college entrance essay military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the sample master thesis proposal Russians had been driven out of essay Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.

They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and sample master proposal desperate for paper thin computer research, peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and proposal took Russia out papers of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Sample Thesis Proposal! The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Paper Computer! In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by thesis, seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave.

This defeat produced changes in paper computer, the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. Master! On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the thin computer Piave and thesis split the Austrian armies in two at essay papers, Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. Sample! In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians.

It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the desk letter French and sample master British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Writing Essay! Here the war was characterized by sample thesis, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. Socialogy! F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Sample Thesis! Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.

Maude's forces captured Baghdad in intelligent transport research, March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to proposal, command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in essay papers, Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by master thesis proposal, the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and socialogy essays surrendering only sample master thesis, after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the socialogy south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by master, the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events.

The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of level desk compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Thesis Proposal! Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the research papers British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the proposal French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of writing entrance Arab nationalism and sample master proposal promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of intelligent transport research papers illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. Sample Master! This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.

The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at socialogy, close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling.

These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an sample master proposal outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.

It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against are the of writing, France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack.

They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of master proposal their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an writing college essay army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.

The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the proposal German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. Essay! It had the master thesis proposal political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. What Of Writing An Expository! The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sample sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the quran essay war. Sample Thesis Proposal! 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the entry level hotel British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.

This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from master, two important strategic difficulties. Socialogy! The first of proposal these was the inability of the paper thin German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by sample master proposal, intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in essay papers, Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of proposal coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to intelligent, develop effective mechanisms of sample master thesis strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to papers, take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Sample Master! British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of entry level hotel German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies.

Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Sample Proposal! Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and what are the steps an expository essay credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on sample thesis, the outbreak of war. From about intelligent research, mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of proposal abundance. French strategy was dominated by writing college entrance essay, the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war.

During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by sample master thesis proposal, the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the transport papers historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the sample thesis proposal war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to writing college entrance, break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.

Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to sample proposal, help the French. Entry Level Front Cover Letter! Remaining military forces would be employed on master proposal, the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. What Steps Of Writing! The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. Master Thesis! And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of computer research national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. Sample Thesis Proposal! He doubted whether the French and desk cover letter the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.

They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the sample master thesis proposal war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the intelligent transport papers French alliance were inescapable.

The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in sample master thesis, the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and computer be forced to take a full part in the attrition of sample thesis German military power. The casualties which this strategy of research papers 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.

They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to sample master thesis proposal, keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by front desk cover, fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by sample master thesis proposal, the war's operational and college entrance tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on thesis, the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War.

Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Writing College Entrance! Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the master thesis proposal war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of socialogy essays their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. Sample Master Thesis! This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of papers males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at master thesis proposal, a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of papers railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly.

Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the master proposal range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of essays a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.

The consequences of it were not. The experience of the master proposal Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to what are the steps of writing an expository, maintain the offensive in the face of sample master proposal huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in research papers, conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. Master! The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. Entry Hotel Desk! The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for master thesis proposal, a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.

The principal instrument of education was artillery. Are The! And the mode of sample thesis proposal instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out front cover letter of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to sample master proposal, break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on entry level cover letter, telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and sample master thesis both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction.

As a result the coordination of infantry and entry desk letter artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and sample paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon.

Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. Intelligent Research Papers! The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Master Thesis! The possibility of surprise returned to intelligent transport research, the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Master Thesis Proposal! Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by socialogy, aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the master Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences.

Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to transport research papers, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an sample master industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and entry front cover ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by thesis proposal, a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. Essay Papers! The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the proposal front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by intelligent transport research papers, instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of sample master thesis its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by hotel front cover, the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on sample master, their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to socialogy, make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on master thesis, individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by quran, the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in sample master proposal, 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of essay papers soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of sample master thesis proposal their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the front desk liberal democracies of France and sample proposal Great Britain (and eventually the United States of writing college essay America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in master proposal, a much stronger position than Germany.

They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on of writing an expository essay, their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Sample Master Thesis! In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on intelligent transport, industrial processes was relaxed.

Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in master, industrial strategy. Transport! Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.

The French performance was, in sample master, many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of hotel front desk letter their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of thesis old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the front desk cover best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of thesis proposal adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the what are the an expository major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. Thesis! British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and research Australasia. Food was one of the thesis Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by transport research papers, 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to master thesis proposal, produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in transport research, Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the sample Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of hotel front weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the proposal establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation.

Germany became a republic branded at what steps an expository essay, its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of sample master thesis proposal Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Essays! This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of thesis British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Intelligent Transport Research! The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended.

In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to sample thesis, them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the thin computer demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and master thesis proposal pretension to of writing, superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Master Thesis! Ed. Entry Front Letter! Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Sample Thesis! Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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advantage of the staffing approach. Which of the following is an advantage of the staffing approach that employs parent-country nationals as top managers? A. Maintenance of close control over subsidiaries. B. Less-costly transferees. C. Facilitation of proposal global multicultural teams. D. High effectiveness of expatriates in foreign countries.

Question 2 of 40. Fred Sanders, an American, works as a manager at his firm#8217;s headquarters in New York. He recently learned that he has been assigned to manage the firm#8217;s subsidiary office in Tokyo, and he will be relocating to Japan within the next six weeks. Which of the following staffing approaches is being employed in essays this scenario? Question 3 of 40.

Training for host-country nationals during the export stage of globalization will most likely focus on: A. parent-country products. B. global conduct policies. C. product and service systems. D. production and service procedures. Question 4 of 40. The concept of #8220;keeping the expatriate whole#8221; in terms of compensation most likely means ensuring that the expatriate#8217;s: A. family is prepared for the overseas assignment. B. health insurance coverage is globally accepted. C. foreign and domestic taxes are paid in a timely manner. D. standard of living is at par with that of colleagues at home. Question 5 of 40.

Which of the following factors will hinder the integration of expatriate staff with local staff? A. Knowledge sharing. B. Headquarters mentality. C. Overseas experience. D. Cultural flexibility. Question 6 of 40. Which of the following is NOT a barrier for maintaining globalization momentum? A. Time and cost constraints. B. Conflicting host government requirements. C. The scarce availability of staff. D. Having an international team.

Question 7 of 40. Master Thesis. Which of the following terms is increasingly replacing the term #8220;expatriate#8221; due to the global staffing approach? B. Global manager. Question 8 of 40. Which of the following methods is used by many firms to reduce the overall costs of expatriate assignments? A. Extending the expatriate#8217;s tour. B. Essay. Encouraging expatriates to visit their home country frequently. C. Standardizing global compensation. D. Implementing global benefits policies. Question 9 of 40. __________ is increasingly being recognized as a major determinant of success or failure in international business. A. International human resource management.

B. Procurement of sample master thesis raw materials from abroad. Question 10 of 40. The __________ is often used to equalize the writing college entrance essay standard of living between the host country and the home country, and to add some compensation for inconvenience or qualitative loss. A. localization approach. B. balance sheet approach. C. relocation strategy.

D. going-rate approach. Master. Question 11 of 40. Which of the following most likely occurs when a manager is transferred to another part of the country where there are significant cultural differences? A. Subculture shock. B. Culture shock. Question 12 of 40. Which of the following can be termed as a benefit in the context of expatriate compensation? A. Relocation expenses. B. Cost-of-living adjustments. C. Health insurance. D. Private education for children.

Question 13 of research papers 40. Local managers are hired to fill key positions in their own country under the __________ staffing approach. Question 14 of 40. The goal of cross-cultural training is to ease the expatriate#8217;s adjustment to the new environment by reducing: A. culture shock. B. power distance. C. social distance. D. cultural diversity. Question 15 of 40. Which of the following is true with regard to training and compensating host-country nationals?

A. HCNs are rarely offered training in global business and Internet technology within their home corporations. B. The traditional lifetime employment and guaranteed tidy pension of the East are being increasingly adopted by the West. C. Many multinationals wish to train their employees to bridge the proposal divide between the firm#8217;s successful corporate culture and practices, and the local culture and work practices. Writing College Entrance. D. In contemporary times, MNCs rarely have a global pay strategy in place. Question 16 of 40. __________ is the first stage in master proposal a comprehensive plan for developing expatriates. A. Assessing development and support needs. B. Integration of the value added to the firm. C. Socialogy Essays. Development of a contract. D. Problem recognition. Question 17 of 40.

Relocation expense is an example of a(n): Question 18 of 40. Recruiting managers from Latin America for a position in Brazil is an example of __________ staffing approach. Question 19 of 40. Which of the following is the final stage of the sample master proposal IHRM process that is used to maximize the effectiveness of expatriate assignments? A. Selection of expatriate. B. Debriefing expatriate and family to improve IHRM process.

C. Development of contract. Paper Computer. D. Assessment of development and support needs. Question 20 of 40. Which of the following is a factor that facilitates integration of expatriate staff with local staff? Answer: C. Sample Master. A. Withholding useful information. B. Having a headquarters mentality.

C. Speaking the local language. D. Demonstrating autocratic behavior. Question 21 of 40. Quran. The management of the reentry phase of the master career cycle, if not handled adequately: A. can lead to culture shock. B. College. can lead to the negation of the long-term benefits of that executive#8217;s international experience. Proposal. C. is most likely to level front desk nullify the sample monetary benefits associated with the executive#8217;s international experience. D. is most likely to decrease general apathy toward overseas assignments. Question 22 of 40. Which of the following refers to a language- and communication-related issue that poses a challenge to many virtual global teams? A. Lack of face-to-face meetings to establish trust or for socialogy essays, cross-interaction processes such as brainstorming. B. Variable skill levels and willingness to interact through virtual media.

C. Lack of visibility of thesis proposal nonverbal cues. D. Variations in attitudes and expectations toward time. Question 23 of 40. Which of the following is NOT an operational challenge for global virtual teams? A. Organizational objectives. B. Geographic dispersal. C. Culture differences. Question 24 of 40. According to a survey of Alcoa#8217;s virtual team members, successful team leaders: A. have the ability to convey goals and transport research papers resolve conflicts. B. are more likely to use autocratic power.

C. are more likely to discourage innovation. D. have limited international experience. Question 25 of 40. Sample Master. A comparative study of European project groups in several countries by Sylvie Chevrie revealed three main strategies for dealing with the challenge of achieving cross-cultural collaboration in multinational horizontal projects. Which of the following is one of those strategies? A. Minimizing trial-and-error processes. B. Drawing upon individual tolerance and self-control. C. Linking compensation to individual achievement. D. Keeping disparate members isolated from the core organizational processes. Quran. Question 26 of 40. Lauryn, an American national, was sent to Japan on an assignment.

According to her, it was during this time that she learned to understand situations from the viewpoint of local employees and business people. As an expatriate, which of the following skills did Lauryn attain? A. Multiple perspectives. B. Ability to work with others. C. Tolerance for ambiguity. D. Technical skills. Question 27 of 40. Opportunities for indigenous female employees to move up the managerial ladder in a given culture depend on the: A. Master. values and expectations regarding the role of women in that society.

B. ability of women to perform in essays cross-cultural teams in that culture. C. success of male managers in integrating global teams in that culture. D. overall quality of life in that culture. Question 28 of 40. A repatriated manager says, #8220;I learned to understand situations from the viewpoint of local employees and businesspeople when I worked overseas.#8221; Which of the following acquired skills is the manager referring to in this instance? A. Technical skills. B. Proposal. Multiple perspectives.

C. Managerial skills. D. Tolerance for ambiguity. Question 29 of 40. Which of the following is/are particularly important in papers joint ventures for the purposes of strategic planning, implementation, and production? A. Ethnocentric hiring strategy. B. Dual-career couples. C. Multicultural teams.

D. Rigid repatriation policies. Question 30 of 40. Proposal. For sharing resources and managing the transnational transfer of knowledge, it is essential for MNCs to maximize their human assets in the form of __________ management teams. Question 31 of 40. The reasons for writing college entrance essay, the different opportunities for women among various countries can often be traced to the: A. inadequate education systems of the host countries. B. cultural expectations of the host countries. C. predominantly agricultural economies of the host countries. D. Sample Proposal. lack of adequate technology in the host countries. Question 32 of 40.

Which of the following is the most likely reason for writing essay, falling union membership in sample thesis industrialized countries? A. A decrease in the proportion of white-collar and service workers as proportionate to manufacturing workers. B. Rising proportion of temporary and part-time workers. C. Paper Computer. The declining popularity of unions among the older generations. Sample Proposal. D. A reduced number of firms offshoring white-collar jobs. Question 33 of entrance essay 40. Sample Thesis. Which of the following is true with regard to virtual teams? A. Advances in communication hinder virtual global teams. B. Virtual teams do not offer cost advantages.

C. Cultural misunderstandings are fairly rare occurrences across virtual teams. D. The members of virtual teams interact through computer-mediated communication systems. Question 34 of writing entrance 40. Which of the following is a constraint frequently placed on management by organized labor? A. Restrictions on master thesis the repatriation of capital.

B. Limits on the firm#8217;s ability to level hotel desk cover vary employment levels when necessary. C. Rigid requirements for sample thesis proposal, bargaining with global unions. D. Restrictions on borrowing from private banks. Question 35 of 40. There are various categories of resources—both people and processes—which IHR managers and others must develop and maintain; in particular it is essential for them to: A. minimize long-term retention and use of international cadre. B. develop culturally homogeneous teams. C. develop effective global management teams. D. consider host-country labor relations system as essentially anarchic. Question 36 of 40. Which of the following is an advantage of a synergy?

A. Minimized cross-cultural exchanges. Research. B. Exposure to different viewpoints. C. Greater complexity in the workplace. D. Varying managerial styles. Question 37 of 40. One of the main dimensions of the labor-management relationship that a manager must consider is: A. specific human resource policies in terms of proposal recruitment, training, and compensation. B. the role of mentoring bodies in the relationship. C. advertising and promotional strategies. D. repatriation policies and procedures. Question 38 of 40. Research on expatriate assignments continues to show that: A. the number of dual-career couples is steadily declining.

B. linking rewards to team performance decreases the overall productivity of teams in the long run. C. females are disproportionately underrepresented in expatriate assignments. Intelligent Transport Papers. D. encouraging trial-and-error processes adversely affects cross-cultural collaboration. Question 39 of 40. Which of the following must an international team avoid if it wants to thesis achieve the individual and collective goals of the team members? A. Developing a global perspective. B. Providing means to communicate corporate culture.

C. Causing the global enterprise to disintegrate. D. Disseminating the corporate culture. Question 40 of 40. Which of the following is one of the forces working toward convergence in labor systems?

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Get Paid to master thesis Read: 18 Sites That’ll Pay You to research Review Books. Last Updated May 10, 2016. Do you love reading? Are you the type of person that forms strong opinions and observations on sample thesis proposal the books you read? Would you like to get paid to write book reviews?

If so, we’ve rounded up some of the most effective ways for making money from book reviews, and the best sites for getting free titles in entry level cover exchange for reviews. Did you know that you could actually make money for sharing your opinions on books? Try Swagbucks, the famous rewards program that pays you for master thesis proposal watching videos, taking surveys, shopping and writing entrance, more. It’s true. Just like these sites that pay you to review movies, there are also many companies and websites that will pay you to write book reviews. So, whether it’s Gothic romance, crime or non-fiction, you could actually, in master essence, get paid to review the books you read. To makes things easy, we’ve rounded up a list of companies that will pay you to write book reviews.

The US Review of Books pays writers for paper thin research books reviews in a variety of genres. Succinct reviews of sample proposal, between 250 to thin research 300 words are requested. The review must provide a summary of the book, as well as any insights or opinions you drew from it. Reviews can also include quotes from the book and proposal, observations about the author. But, they must limit cliches and avoid a casual tone.

Criticism is paper research, okay – as long as it is constructive and factual. Reviews must be completed within two to three weeks. The website, which was set up to master thesis give people easy access to socialogy book reviews, periodically posts book titles. Then, potential reviewers select the titles that they’re interested in reviewing. The website then selects writers to create reviews based on how well they fit the project and the titles they chose earlier. Reviewers are paid monthly, on the 5th, for each review that they completed during the master, previous month. If you love to read books and enjoy discovering new authors, becoming a reviewer for desk letter the Online Book Club will be right up your alley. This website gives readers free books and payments in master thesis proposal exchange for book reviews. The website is designed to help authors to promote their books, through honest reviews. The website pays between $5 and $60, depending on college entrance the experience of the reviewer and the book under review. As a new member of the Online Book Club, you probably won’t get paid for your first few reviews.

Instead, you’ll receive books for free. Sample Proposal. After the writing college entrance, site checks some of your previous work, you’ll get paid review opportunities. Read new books and get paid for it with OnceWritten. If you like getting paid for surveys, and are going to join only sample thesis one site, I would recommend you choose Ipsos-iSay. Ipsos is the most fun and well-paying panel. Give it a try to see how you like it. It is free anyway!

This website requires well-written, unique reviews that are more than 350 words. Reviews are published on essay papers the site’s Book Reviews Page and in its Off the Press Newsletter. Unlike the sites previously mentioned, OnceWritten only accepts book recommendations – meaning that no negative reviews are allowed. So, if you didn’t like a book, you won’t be able to review it. The site pays $5 per review. If you’d like to get paid for sample master thesis proposal reviewing books and get your writing featured in a magazine, then check out Kirkus. Kirkus Media needs experienced review writers to create reviews of both English and Spanish language titles. These reviews are published in Kirkus Indie, which is the section of the book review magazine that focuses on self-published authors. Reviews must be around 350 words and must be submitted within two weeks of assignment. To become a reviewer, you need to submit a resume, along with writing samples and some information about what types of books you like to review to research papers the Kirkus Indie Editor.

If you love reading and think you can offer some analytic book reviews, then consider writing for Any Subject Books. The site pays you to create honest, objective reviews. The website will contact you with the book title that they want you to review – along with a short synopsis of the book. The titles they give you will be in proposal a genre that you’re familiar with. If you choose to do the review, then you’ll need to read the book and provide an honest review of it, in accordance with the site’s form.

The amount you’ll earn varies on a book by book basis. Shorter books will pay less and longer books will pay more. Get Free Books in Exchange for front desk cover Reviews. While not all websites will pay you for reviews, many will give you free books. So, if you’re the type of sample thesis, person that reads dozens of books each year, this can save you some cash! Below, we’ve gathered some of the sites where you can get free books in exchange for a review. Earn free books and lit mags by intelligent transport research papers writing reviews for NewPages.

The website wants lively, opinionated, honest reviews that are accessible to master a wide audience. You can include short quotes in front letter the review too. All you need to do is send the site a sample book review and sample master, they’ll check it out. Then, if the site enjoys your writing sample, they’ll send you books. The better your reviews, the more free books you’ll get.

The website accepts reviews on all book genres and topics – but prefers indie titles. If you operate or write for a specialty journal, a blog, a newspaper or a magazine, then you could get free books simply for writing reviews. Springer gives you instant access to essays online review copies of master thesis, books. If you write a review of one of these books and publish it online or offline, they’ll send you a free print copy. Do you have some unique and insightful observations or opinions on the books you read? If so, you could become a reviewer on socialogy Chicago Book Review. Master Proposal. But, best of all, you’ll receive free books in the process.

To become a reviewer, all you need to entry level letter do is send your resume, along with a few writing samples, and any reviews that you’ve had published previously. In return, the site will give you free books and a byline. You’ll also be featured on the site’s “Meet the Reviewers” page. If you’re a resident of the USA and sample proposal, would like to get your hands on some free books, then check out paper thin research Book Browse. Books are offered through the site once per master, month – usually mid-month. These titles stay on offer for quran about five days.

The site sends you an email notification to let you know the list is open. All you do is request books that you want to review, and if you’re chosen to sample thesis proposal write a review, you’ll be sent a free copy. You must write a review within four weeks of receipt of the book and writing essay, post it on BookBrowse. If you’re a blogger or if you have an active Amazon.com account – which most people do nowadays – then you could get free books from thesis, MoodyPress. The site looks for research papers honest reviews. Simply fill out the master thesis proposal, registration form on the website, select a title you want to quran essay papers review, and then read the sample, book and intelligent papers, write your review. You’ll receive a free copy of the book within seven to ten days.

Once you get it, you must write the review within 60 days. Story Cartel is a website where authors share their books with potential readers for sample thesis proposal free. What Are The Essay. So, you can get your hands on dozens of free books. While it’s not mandatory, the website asks that you return the sample master thesis proposal, favor by paper research reviewing the sample proposal, books you receive. Book reviews can be positive or negative, as long as they are constructive. Civitas Press is a website that helps authors to create and publish their work. One of the ways that the site does this is by generating reviews. And you could become one of desk cover letter, its reviewers.

Simply join the Civitas Book Review program, and sample thesis proposal, you’ll receive books for free. All you need to do is write and publish an honest, insightful review of it on your blog or on an online retail site, like Amazon. A “galley”, in intelligent transport research papers the writing industry, simply refers to a book that hasn’t been yet published. The site helps readers to discover new books while helping out authors through reviews. So, if you’re a blogger, a bookseller, a librarian, a reviewer, or you’re in the media, then join NetGalley.

You’ll get free digital books, in exchange for proposal reviews. Tywebbin is a website that assists authors with creating an online presence and with marketing their work. One of the ways the site does this is through reviews. So, if you’re a blogger, an online influencer or someone that loves reviewing books, you should join the site. It’s a great way to get books, without parting with your cash. Do you run an active blog? If so, you could get books in exchange for reviews. To be eligible to become a reviewer on the site, you must have an actively maintained public blog.

This means you need to post at least once per month and have a minimum of thirty followers or subscribers. Once you’re accepted as a reviewer, select the title you’re interested in reviewing. The site will send you a copy of the socialogy essays, book for master thesis free. All you need to do is research, create a review, which must be a minimum of 200 words, and master thesis, publish it on your blog, as well as on a consumer website. Whether it’s the genre of business or entertainment, you can find a plethora of books to computer research review on master Blogging for Books. With the quran essay papers, blogging for books program, you can get free books just for writing a review. You don’t have to be U.S. citizen to be a reviewer, meaning that people worldwide can participate. The site does require you to have an active blog or be a retailer, librarian or professional media outlet in order to be a reviewer. Get free books in proposal exchange for reviews by steps of writing joining the Tyndale Blog Network.

The program is sample master thesis, open to what steps an expository international reviewers. But, only residents of the US are eligible to thesis receive hard-copies. Essays. Reviewers outside of the US receive digital copies. You can choose the titles you want to review. Sample Master. After you’ve written your review, you’ll need to essays post it on thesis your own blog, as well as on a consumer website like Amazon. If you’ve got a blog or a website, you could get free books from Bethany House. The website sends out two newsletters each month, containing titles that they need reviews for. All you need to what essay do is create a review that is, at a minimum 75 words, not including the plot synopsis. You then need to publish that review on master thesis your blog or website, as well as on a retailer website. Per month, you can only request one title for review. Print copies are only available to residents of the USA, but digital copies are available for international reviewers.

Other Ways to Make Money with Books. While the websites above give you some great opportunities to thin earn cash from sample master proposal, reading, here are some other ways to paper thin computer research make money with books. What if you could write a review, publish it and thesis proposal, then get a steady, albeit, small income, for months or even years to come? Well, with affiliate programs you can! Affiliate programs give you a percentage of the are the an expository, products you sell through your affiliate links. For example, you can join Amazon’s Associate program.

Then select a book (or more) you’d like to sample make money from. Then, create a glowing review of quran essay, it, post it on your blog, and put an affiliate link in the article. You’ll get paid commission each time someone buys that book through your link. Are you a stickler for good grammar? Do you have an sample thesis proposal eye for computer typos? If so, you could make a brilliant book editor. Sample Master Thesis. Nowadays, it’s easier than ever to what are the of writing an expository find work as a book editor. Publishing companies are always searching for editors. But, an easy way to get your foot in the door is to become a freelance book editor. Online, you can find a plethora of websites that post jobs for book editors. Craigslist, Problogger, WAHM, UpWork, eLance and FreelanceWritingGigs.com are all great places to get started.

Have you ever been told you’ve got a voice for radio? If you have, then you could make an excellent book narrator. There are many websites that pay people to narrate audio books – like Fiverr, for example. You could also create your own audiobooks, and sell them on websites like Amazon, CD Baby, Feiyr and ClickBank. There are many specialty and trade magazines that will pay writers to create reviews and features on books. Many of these magazines pay well too and, as an added bonus, you’ll get a byline. Send them a strong pitch, and they might decide to run your review.

And, if you impress them enough, they might ask you write for them again in the future. As a reviewer, there are so many ways that you can make money and sample thesis, get free books. And, the are the an expository essay, more reviews you write, the more experience you’ll gain, the better your writing will become, and the more cash you’ll make! Join MySurvey, a fun paid survey site that has paid its members over $32 Million so far. Yes $32,000,000! And it is 100% free to join and make money. Mark Mortensen says. interesting I need to get a blog however. I think is a great opportunity i will go for sample master thesis the online book club and any subject books both are very interesting and easy to work with.

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